M.(K.) v. M.(H.), [1992] 3 S.C.R. 6 (1992)

Supreme Court of Canada

Linked as:


M.(K.) v. M.(H.), [1992] 3 S.C.R. 6 (1992)

M.(K.) v. M.(H.), [1992] 3

S.C.R. 6

K.M. Appellant v.

H.M. Respondent and

Women's Legal Education and Action Fund Intervener

Indexed as: M.(K.) v. M.(H.)

File No.: 21763.

1991: November 8; 1992: October 29.

Present: La Forest, L'Heureux-Dubé, Sopinka, Gonthier, Cory, McLachlin and Iacobucci JJ.

Limitation of actions - Torts - Assault and battery - Incest - Woman bringing action against father for damages for incest - Whether or not action limited by Limitations Act - Application of the reasonable discoverability principle - Whether or not incest a separate and distinct tort - Limitations Act, R.S.O. 1980, c. 240, s. 45(1)(j), 47.

Limitation of actions - Equity - Fiduciary relationship - Parent-child - Woman bringing action against father for incest - Whether incest constitutes a breach of fiduciary duty by a parent - Whether limitation period applicable and whether the defence of laches applies.

Limitation of actions - Fraudulent concealment - Incest - Whether a limitation period in an incest action is postponed by defendant's fraudulent concealment.

Appellant was the victim of incest. It began with fondling by her father and, after the age of ten or eleven, involved regular sexual intercourse with him. Her cooperation and silence were elicited by various threats which appellant had good reason to take seriously. She was also rewarded with pop, potato chips and money. In time, respondent gave her the responsibility for initiating sexual contact. Appellant tried several times to disclose this abuse to no avail. At the age of ten or eleven appellant tried to tell her mother and at age sixteen she told a high school guidance counsellor, who referred her to a school psychologist. Her father had her recant both to the psychologist and to a lawyer for the local school board. Other disclosures made after leaving home came to nothing until she finally attended meetings of a self-help group for incest victims and realized that her psychological problems as an adult were caused by the incest. With therapy appellant also came to realize that it was her father rather than herself who was at fault. Professional opinion was that appellant was unable to assess her situation rationally until she entered this therapy.

In 1985, at the age of 28, appellant sued her father for damages arising from the incest and for breach of a parent's fiduciary duty. A jury found that the respondent had sexually assaulted his daughter, and assessed tort damages of $50,000. The trial judge ruled, however, that the action was barred by s. 45 of the Limitations Act. The Ontario Court of Appeal dismissed an appeal from the trial judge's ruling.

At issue here are: (1) whether incest is a separate and distinct tort not subject to any limitation period; (2) whether incest constitutes a breach of fiduciary duty by a parent not subject to any limitation period; and (3) if a limitation period applies, whether it is postponed by the reasonable discoverability principle.

Held: The appeal should be allowed.

Per La Forest, Gonthier, Cory and Iacobucci JJ.: Incest is both a tortious assault and a breach of fiduciary duty. The tort claim, although subject to limitations legislation, does not accrue until the plaintiff is reasonably capable of discovering the wrongful nature of the defendant's acts and the nexus between those acts and the plaintiff's injuries. In this case, that discovery occurred only when the appellant entered therapy, and the lawsuit was commenced promptly thereafter. The time for bringing a claim for breach of a fiduciary duty is not limited by statute in Ontario, and this breach therefore stands along with the tort claim as a basis for recovery by the appellant. Incest does not constitute a distinct tort, separate and apart from the intentional tort of assault and battery, and the continuous nature of the tort need not be decided here.

Incest unquestionably constitutes an assault and battery, and based on the jury's verdict, all of the requisite elements of the test were proved. Assault and battery, however, can only serve as a crude legal description of incest; the law must also take account of the unique and complex nature of incestuous abuse and its consequential harms. Various psychological and emotional harms immediately beset the victim of incest, but much of the damage is latent and extremely debilitating. When the damages begin to become apparent, the causal connection between the incestuous activity and present psychological injuries is often unknown to the victim. A statute of limitations provides little incentive for an incest victim to prosecute his or her action in a timely fashion if the victim has been rendered psychologically incapable of recognizing that a cause of action exists.

The reasonable discoverability rule, as developed in previous decisions of this Court, should be applied and the limitations period should begin to run only when the plaintiff has a substantial awareness of the harm and its likely cause. Th...

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