Canada's incarceration rate is 117/100,000 adults and youth, while the United States' is 762/100,000 and France's is 91/100,000.
* The Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) has been in force since1992 and was amended in 2012. The CCRA outlines the responsibilities of the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), the Parole Board of Canada (PBC) and the Correctional Investigator.
* The fundamental principle underlying the CCRA and governing the CSC and PBC is that long-term safety is best ensured by the safe, gradual return of offenders to the community, albeit with conditions and under supervision as the protection of society is paramount.
** CSC and the PBC fall under the Minister of Public Safety Canada.
** Public Safety is Canada's lead department for public safety.
** As Ombudsman, the Correctional Investigator is independent of the Correctional Service and the Minister of Public Safety.
The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), as part of the criminal justice system and respecting the rule of law, contributes to public safety by actively encouraging and assisting offenders to become law-abiding citizens, while exercising reasonable, safe, secure and humane control.
* In Canada all offenders sentenced to 2 years or more become the responsibility of CSC, while those sentenced to less than 2 years under the jurisdiction of the province/territory where convicted.
* The Correctional Service of Canada offers treatment and education programs for offenders. As well, educational resources for students and teachers are made available: For firsthand accounts of CSC operations, you can watch a video, or access the text transcript, at http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/index-eng.shtml.
* CSC's budget in 2012-13 >$3B
The CSC has
* 20,278 staff members, of whom 7.5% are Aboriginal;
* 57 institutions, 16 community correctional centres, 71 parole offices and 9 Aboriginal healing lodges;
* 14,221 inmates in institutions as of March 31, 2011, plus 8,642 offenders under community supervision; women comprise 4% and 6% respectively; in addition:
** 90% of offenders have a previous youth or adult conviction, 80% have histories of substance abuse, 67% committed violent offences and there are serious mental health disorders among 13% of male and 29% of female populations upon admission;
** 1 in 6 males and 1 in 10 females have gang affiliations;
** 18% of the incarcerated offender population is age 50 or over;
** 60% serving short sentences of 4 years or less...