Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Zakaria et al., (2014) 463 F.T.R. 168 (FC)

JudgeStrickland, J.
CourtFederal Court (Canada)
Case DateApril 02, 2014
JurisdictionCanada (Federal)
Citations(2014), 463 F.T.R. 168 (FC);2014 FC 864

Can. (M.C.I.) v. Zakaria (2014), 463 F.T.R. 168 (FC)

MLB headnote and full text

Temp. Cite: [2014] F.T.R. TBEd. SE.036

The Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (plaintiff) v. Walid Zakaria, Rim Sawaf, Sami Zakaria, Karim Zakaria (defendants)

(T-1104-13; 2014 FC 864; 2014 CF 864)

Indexed As: Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Zakaria et al.

Federal Court

Strickland, J.

September 10, 2014.

Summary:

A mother and a father, citizens of Syria, came to Canada with their two children (aged nine and seven) in 1999. The mother and children obtained Canadian citizenship in 2005. Since the children were minors, their citizenship applications were completed and signed by the mother. The father obtained citizenship in 2008. In 2011, the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration commenced an action to have the family's citizenship revoked on the basis that it had been obtained by making false representations or fraud, or by knowingly concealing material circumstances. The family moved for summary judgment dismissing the action against the two children.

The Federal Court dismissed the motion.

Aliens - Topic 2504

Naturalization - General - Revocation (incl. loss of citizenship) - [See Aliens - Topic 2548 ].

Aliens - Topic 2548

Naturalization - Disqualifications - Making false representation or concealing material circumstances - A mother obtained Canadian citizenship in 2005 - She also applied for and obtained citizenship on behalf of her two children, who were 14 and 11 years old at the time - In 2011, the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration commenced an action to have the family's citizenship revoked, alleging that the mother made false representations and knowingly concealed material circumstances about receiving assistance from an immigration consulting firm - The family moved for summary judgment dismissing the action against the children - The Federal Court dismissed the motion - The children did not know that their mother had failed to disclose the fact that she used an immigration consultant - However, notwithstanding that the children did not have the requisite intent, ss. 10 and 18 of the Citizenship Act permitted revocation of citizenship obtained as a minor even though the subject misrepresentation was made by someone else - Given that the Act and Regulations permitted a parent to make an application on behalf of a child, any allegation of false representations or fraud or knowing concealment of material circumstances had to pertain to the acts or omissions of the parent - Based on the evidence before it, the court was unable to determine whether the mother's acts or omissions established that she made a false representation or knowingly concealed material circumstances by which the children obtained their citizenship - There was a genuine issue for trial.

Practice - Topic 5702

Judgments and orders - Summary judgments - Jurisdiction or when available or when appropriate - [See Aliens - Topic 2548 ].

Practice - Topic 5708

Judgments and orders - Summary judgments - Bar to application - Existence of issue to be tried - [See Aliens - Topic 2548 ].

Practice - Topic 5719

Judgment and orders - Summary judgments - To dismiss action - [See Aliens - Topic 2548 ].

Cases Noticed:

Lameman et al. v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., [2008] 1 S.C.R. 372; 372 N.R. 239; 429 A.R. 26; 421 W.A.C. 26; 2008 SCC 14, refd to. [para. 17].

ITV Technologies Inc. v. WIC Television Ltd., [2001] N.R. Uned. 33; 2001 FCA 11, refd to. [para. 17].

Granville Shipping Co. v. Pegasus Lines Ltd. S.A. et al., [1996] 2 F.C. 853; 111 F.T.R. 189 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 17].

Ulextra Inc. v. Pronto Luce Inc., [2004] F.T.R. Uned. 363; 31 C.P.R.(4th) 339; 2004 FC 590, refd to. [para. 17].

Pawar v. Canada, [1999] 1 F.C.R. 158; 154 F.T.R. 136; 56 C.P.R.(2d) 318 (T.D.), affd. (1999), 247 N.R. 271 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 17].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Schneeberger, [2004] 1 F.C.R. 280; 238 F.T.R. 85; 2003 FC 970, refd to. [para. 17].

Premakumaran v. Canada, [2006] 2 F.C.R. 191; 351 N.R. 165; 2006 FCA 213, leave to appeal refused (2006), 362 N.R. 390 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 21].

Trojan Technologies Inc. v. Suntec Environmental Inc. (2004), 320 N.R. 322; 239 D.L.R.(4th) 536; 2004 FCA 140, refd to. [para. 21].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Laroche, [2008] F.T.R. Uned. 372; 2008 FC 528, refd to. [para. 21].

Rude Native Inc. et al. v. Tyrone T. Resto Lounge et al., [2010] F.T.R. Uned. 836; 2010 FC 1278, refd to. [para. 32].

Wall v. Brunell et al., [2000] N.R. Uned. 118; 7 C.P.R.(4th) 321 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 32].

Teva Canada Ltd. v. Wyeth LLC et al., [2011] F.T.R. Uned. 879; 99 C.P.R.(4th) 398; 2011 FC 1169, revd. on other grounds (2012), 431 N.R. 342; 2012 FCA 141, refd to. [para. 34].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Campbell, [2014] F.T.R. Uned. 223; 2014 FC 40, refd to. [para. 36].

Hryniak v. Mauldin (2014), 453 N.R. 51; 2014 SCC 7, refd to. [para. 37].

Canada (Minister of State for Multiculturalism and Citizenship) v. Minhas (1993), 66 F.T.R. 155; 21 Imm. L.R.(2d) 31 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 41].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Odynsky (2001), 196 F.T.R. 1; 2001 FCT 138, refd to. [para. 41].

McEwing et al. v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., [2013] 4 F.C.R. 63; 433 F.T.R. 59; 2013 FC 525, refd to. [para. 42].

Samatar v. Canada (Attorney General) (2012), 420 F.T.R. 182; 2012 FC 1263, refd to. [para. 42].

Baro v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2007] F.T.R. Uned. 877; 2007 FC 1299, refd to. [para. 43].

Reference Re Section 94(2) of the Motor Vehicle Act (B.C.), [1985] 2 S.C.R. 486; 63 N.R. 266; 24 D.L.R.(4th) 536, refd to. [para. 44].

Ryan Estate et al. v. Universal Marine Ltd. et al., [2013] 3 S.C.R. 53; 447 N.R. 1; 339 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 312; 1054 A.P.R. 312; 2013 SCC 44, refd to. [para. 48].

Minister of Manpower and Immigration v. Brooks, [1974] S.C.R. 850; 36 D.L.R.(3d) 522, refd to. [para. 48].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Tobiass et al., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 391; 218 N.R. 81; 151 D.L.R.(4th) 119, refd to. [para. 48].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Copeland, [1998] 2 F.C. 493; 140 F.T.R. 183 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 48].

Canada (Ministre de la Citoyenneté et de l'Immigration) v. Obodzinsky (2000), 199 F.T.R. 1; 14 Imm. L.R.(3d) 184 (T.D.) , refd to. [para. 48].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Baumgartner (2001), 211 F.T.R. 197; 2001 FCT 970, refd to. [para. 49].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Phan (2003), 240 F.T.R. 239; 2003 FC 1194, refd to. [para. 49].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Rogan (2011), 396 F.T.R. 47; 2011 FC 1007, refd to. [para. 49].

Taylor v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, [2008] 3 F.C.R. 324; 369 N.R. 346; 2007 FCA 349, refd to. [para. 50].

Benner v. Canada (Secretary of State), [1997] 1 S.C.R. 358; 208 N.R. 81; 147 D.L.R.(4th) 577, refd to. [para. 51].

Milburn v. Arthur (1901), 31 S.C.R. 481, refd to. [para. 51].

Skogan et al. v. Worthman et al. (2010), 257 Man.R.(2d) 306; 2010 MBQB 194, refd to. [para. 51].

Coomaraswamy et al. v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2002] 4 F.C. 501; 289 N.R. 137; 2002 FCA 153, leave to appeal refused (2002), 307 N.R. 192 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 51].

Wang (Xiao) v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (2005), 277 F.T.R. 216; 2005 FC 1059, refd to. [para. 52].

D'Souza v. Minister of Employment and Immigration, [1983] 1 F.C. 343 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 52].

Jiang v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2011] F.T.R. Uned. 572; 2011 FC 942, refd to. [para. 52].

Gill v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2010] F.T.R. Uned. 316; 2010 FC 492, refd to. [para. 52].

Rizzo & Rizzo Shoes Ltd. (Bankrupt), Re, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 27; 221 N.R. 241; 106 O.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 53].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Savic (2014), 456 F.T.R. 38; 2014 FC 523, refd to. [para. 70].

Statutes Noticed:

Citizenship Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-29, sect. 10, sect. 18 [para. 15].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Driedger, Elmer A., Construction of Statutes (2nd Ed. 1983), p. 87 [para. 48].

Fridman, Gerald Henry Louis, Canadian Agency Law (2008), pp. 184, 190 to 192, paras. 8.2, 8.10, 8.13 [para. 51].

Waldman, Lorne, Immigration Law and Practice (2nd Ed.) (Looseleaf), vol. 1, p. 4-62, para. 4.115 [paras. 49, 73].

Counsel:

Ian Demers and Charles Junior Jean, for the plaintiff;

Lorne Waldman and Claire Crummey, for the defendants.

Solicitors of Record:

William F. Pentney, Deputy Attorney General of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, for the plaintiff;

Waldman & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, for the defendants.

This motion was heard at Toronto, Ontario, on April 2, 2014, before Strickland, J., of the Federal Court, who delivered the following judgment and reasons at Ottawa, Ontario, on September 10, 2014.

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3 practice notes
  • Hassouna c. Canada (Citoyenneté et Immigration),
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • May 10, 2017
    ...Immigration), 2016 FC 1280; May v. CBC/Radio Canada, 2011 FCA 130, 231 C.R.R. (2d) 369; Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v. Zakaria, 2014 FC 864, 30 Imm. L.R. (4th) 138; Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v. Rubuga, 2015 FC 1073; Chabanov v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2017 ......
  • Flaro v. Canada, 2018 FC 229
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • February 28, 2018
    ...to determine on a motion for summary judgment pursuant to Rule 215(2)(b) of the Rules (Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v Zakaria), 2014 FC 864 at paras 17-20). [28] Here, there are similarities with Pinder v Canada, 2015 FC 1376 at para 68, aff’d at 2016 FCA 317 [Pinder] where the Cour......
  • Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Achkar et al., [2015] F.T.R. Uned. 256
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • May 8, 2015
    ...and thus, the child does not have to intend to mislead the decision-maker ( Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v Zakaria, 2014 FC 864 at para 84). B. Summary Judgment [33] Rule 215 of the Federal Court Rules states that the Court shall grant a summary judgment if on a motion f......
3 cases
  • Hassouna c. Canada (Citoyenneté et Immigration),
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • May 10, 2017
    ...Immigration), 2016 FC 1280; May v. CBC/Radio Canada, 2011 FCA 130, 231 C.R.R. (2d) 369; Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v. Zakaria, 2014 FC 864, 30 Imm. L.R. (4th) 138; Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v. Rubuga, 2015 FC 1073; Chabanov v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2017 ......
  • Flaro v. Canada, 2018 FC 229
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • February 28, 2018
    ...to determine on a motion for summary judgment pursuant to Rule 215(2)(b) of the Rules (Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) v Zakaria), 2014 FC 864 at paras 17-20). [28] Here, there are similarities with Pinder v Canada, 2015 FC 1376 at para 68, aff’d at 2016 FCA 317 [Pinder] where the Cour......
  • Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Achkar et al., [2015] F.T.R. Uned. 256
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • May 8, 2015
    ...and thus, the child does not have to intend to mislead the decision-maker ( Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v Zakaria, 2014 FC 864 at para 84). B. Summary Judgment [33] Rule 215 of the Federal Court Rules states that the Court shall grant a summary judgment if on a motion f......

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