Given the many Canadians who have business, assets, work or winter in the United States ("US"), it is not uncommon for someone in Canada to owe money to a US lender. If you went to school in the US, you may even have US student debt. How US debts are treated in a bankruptcy if you cannot repay those debts depends on how deeply your other financial arrangements may be tied to the US.
Difference Between US Debt and Canadian Debt
First, we need to understand the difference between a US debt and a Canadian debt in US dollars. If you shop in the US frequently, you may visit your local Canadian bank and apply for a US dollar credit card to use while there. Charges you make on that card are billed in US dollars, and you may even pay them from a Canadian US dollar bank account. In this case, your debt may be in US dollars, but it is a Canadian debt.
Now, let's say that you vacation in Florida for 5 months every year, so you decide to apply for a US department store card there. In this case your US credit card, say from Macy's or Target, is issued by a US lender. Any charges, and balances you carry, on that credit card are US debts. In other words, a US debt is not based on the currency of the debt. A US debt is one issued in the US by a US lending institution.
If you default on a US debt, your account will likely be referred to a collection agency in the US. It is likely they will attempt to collect through phone calls and notices. However, it is very difficult to pursue collection if you are living in Canada. To take stronger action like garnisheeing your wages or freezing a Canadian bank account, they would have to sue you to obtain a judgement in Canadian court. If the debt is large enough, a US creditor or collection agency may be willing to do this, however given the cost, it is unlikely to happen for small debts.
Can US creditors still pursue me if I file for bankruptcy in Canada?
If you file insolvency in Canada, you are granted a stay of proceedings against creditor actions in Canada. Filing a bankruptcy or proposal in Canada means creditors can no longer pursue you for US debts in Canada for that debt. Technically your US debts are included in...