Detailed table of contents

Author:Robert J. Sharpe - Kent Roach
Profession:Court of Appeal for Ontario - Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
Pages:vii-xv
 
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PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION xvii

INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 1:

HISTORICAL CONTEXT 4

  1. The Pre-1982 Canadian Constitution 4

    1) Parliamentary Supremacy 4

    2) Federalism 5

  2. Rights Protection through Common Law and Statutory Interpretation 6

  3. The Constitution Act, 1867 and the Protection of Fundamental Rights 8

  4. The Constitution Act, 1867 and Protection against Discrimination 12

  5. International Human Rights Charters 14

  6. Human Rights Codes 16

  7. The Canadian Bill of Rights, 1960 16

  8. The Drafting of the Charter 19

    1. The Secession Reference and the Unwritten Structural Principles of the Constitution 21

  9. Use of Unwritten Constitutional Principles in Subsequent Litigation 24

    Further Readings 26

    CHAPTER 2:

    THE LEGITIMACY OF JUDICIAL REVIEW 27

  10. Justification for Judicial Review — Federalism 29

  11. Concerns about Judicial Power under the Charter 31

  12. Justifications for Judicial Review — Charter of Rights and Freedoms 34

    1) Judicial Review to Protect Democracy 34

    2) Judicial Review and Rights Protection 37

    3) Judicial Review and Framers’ Intent 38

    4) Judicial Review as Part of a Democratic Dialogue 39

  13. The Role of the Courts under the Charter 42

  14. Conclusion 44

    Further Readings 45

    CHAPTER 3:

    INTERPRETATION OF THE CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS 47

  15. The Nature of Charter Rights 47

  16. Interpretation of Charter Rights 51

    1) The Purposive Method 52

    2) The Contextual Method 56

    3) The Reconciliation of Competing Rights 58

    4) Interpretive Sources 59

  17. Conclusion 62

    Further Readings 63

    CHAPTER 4:

    LIMITATION OF CHARTER RIGHTS 65

  18. Limits Prescribed by Law 65

  19. Proportionality 68

    1) Sufficiently Important Objective 69

    2) Rational Connection between Limit and Objective 72

    3) Minimal Impairment 75

    4) Overall Balance 76

  20. The Oakes Test: Strict Rules or Guiding Principles? 78

    1) Broad Issues of Social and Economic Policy 80

    2) Reconciling Competing Claims and Protecting Vulnerable Groups 82

    3) Definitional Elements 83

    4) Relationship to Section 33 86

    5) Cost 86

    6) Consultation 87

  21. Burden of Proof and Section 1 Evidence 88

  22. Conclusion 89

    Further Readings 89

    CHAPTER 5:

    THE LEGISLATIVE OVERRIDE 91

    Further Readings 96

    CHAPTER 6:

    APPLICATION 97

  23. Dolphin Delivery — Limiting the Application of the Charter 98

  24. What Is Government? 100

  25. Indirect Application of the Charter 103

  26. Charter Values and the Common Law 104

  27. Extraterritorial Application 107

  28. Claiming Charter Rights 110

  29. Conclusion 111

    Further Readings 112

    CHAPTER 7:

    CHARTER LITIGATION 113

  30. Intervention by the Attorney General and Public-Interest Groups 114

  31. References 115

  32. Declaratory Proceedings, Standing, Advance Costs, and Mootness 118

  33. The System of Courts and Jurisdiction in Charter Cases 122

    1) Administrative Tribunals 122

    2) Provincial Courts 123

    3) Superior Courts 124

    4) Federal Court 124

    5) The Supreme Court of Canada 125

    1. Composition of the Court and Appointment of Judges 126

    2. The Hearing of Appeals 130

  34. Conclusion 130

    Further Readings 131

    CHAPTER 8:

    FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE AND RELIGION 132

  35. Sunday Closing Laws 134

  36. Accommodation of Religion 138

  37. Parental Rights 141

  38. Religion and Education 143

    1) School Prayer and Religious Instruction 143

    2) School Safety and Religious Requirements 144

    3) Sectarian Schools 146

  39. Reconciling Freedom of Religion with Other Values 149

  40. Conclusion 153

    Further Readings 153

    CHAPTER 9:

    FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION 155

  41. ...

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