Detailed table of contents

Author:John D. McCamus
Profession:Professor of Law. Osgoode Hall Law School, York University
Pages:vii-xix
 
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PREFACE xxi

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION 1

  1. Overview 1

    1) The Plan of This Work 2

    2) A Study of the General Principles of Contract Law 6

    3) The Three Meanings of “Common Law” 7

  2. Common Law and Equity 9

  3. Contract, Tort and Restitution 13

  4. Continuity and Change 18

  5. Contracts as a Work in Progress: Modern Trends 23

    Further Readings 28

    PART ONE: FORMATION 29

    CHAPTER 2:

    OFFER AND ACCEPTANCE 31

  6. Introduction 31

  7. The Offer 33

    1) Preliminary Negotiations and Offers 34

    1. Retail Sales 37

    2. Offers to the General Public: Rewards and Other Unilateral Contracts 40

    3. Tenders 43

    4. Auctions 47

    2) Communication of Offer 48

  8. The Acceptance 52

    1) Counteroffers, Rejections and Failed Acceptances 52

    2) The Battle of the Forms 59

  9. Communication of Acceptance 67

    1) Silence as Acceptance 68

    2) The Postal Acceptance Rule 73

    3) Instantaneous Communications 76

  10. Revocation of the Offer 82

    1) Communication of Revocation 83

    2) The “Flagpole Problem” and Its Solutions 85

    Further Readings 89

    CHAPTER 3:

    CERTAINTY OF TERMS 91

  11. Introduction 91

  12. Incompleteness 93

  13. Agreements to Agree 101

  14. Vagueness 104

    Further Readings 110

    CHAPTER 4:

    INTENTION TO CREATE LEGAL RELATIONS 111

  15. Introduction 111

  16. Commercial Arrangements 113

    1) Explicit Agreements Not to Be Bound 113

    2) Tendering Processes 115

    3) Letters of Comfort 118

    4) Preliminary Agreements, Letters of Intent and Agreements “Subject to Contract” 125

  17. Domestic and Social Arrangements 129

    Further Readings 135

    CHAPTER 5:

    BARGAINING IN GOOD FAITH 137

  18. Introduction 137

  19. Certainty of Terms 141

  20. Options to Renew 144

  21. The Conduct of Tendering Processes 147

  22. A Duty to Bargain in Good Faith in the Absence of a Contract? 151

  23. Conclusion 156

    Further Readings 158

    CHAPTER 6:

    AGREEMENTS IN WRITING 160

  24. Introduction 160

  25. Agreements Required to Be in Writing: The Statute of Frauds 161

    1) Introduction 161

    2) Undertakings Subject to Section 4 of the Statute 165

    1. Promises to Answer for the Debt, Default or Miscarriages of Another Person 165

    2. Promises Made upon Consideration of Marriage 167

    3. Promise by an Executor or Administrator to Answer Damages out of His or Her Own Estate 167

    4. Agreements Not to Be Performed within One Year 168

    5. Contracts for the Sale of Any Interest in Land 169

      3) The Section 4 Formalities and the Effect of Non-compliance 170

      4) Relief from the Effects of Non-compliance 174

    6. The Doctrine of Part Performance 174

    7. Hiding behind the Statute of Frauds in Order to Perpetrate a Fraud 178

    8. Restitution 179

      5) Other Statutory Writing Requirements 180

  26. Incorporation of Written Terms 181

    1) Introduction 181

    2) Unsigned Documents 183

    3) Signed Documents 190

  27. The Parol Evidence Rule 193

    1) Introduction 193

    2) The Scope and Operation of the Rule 197

    3) Exceptions to the Rule 199

    4) Canadian Reception of the Modern Approach 203

    5) Merger and Entire Agreement Clauses 206

    6) Conclusion 207

    Further Readings 207

    PART TWO: ENFORCEABILITY 209

    CHAPTER 7:

    CONSIDERATION AND FORM 211

  28. Introduction 211

  29. Consideration 214

    1) The Bargain Theory 214

    1. The Definition of Consideration 214

    2. Certainty 218

    3. Firm Offers 219

    4. Illusory Consideration 220

    5. Implied Consideration 221

    6. The “Peppercorn Theory” 222

    7. Nominal Consideration 223

    8. Forbearance 226

    9. Charitable Subscriptions 228

    10. Manufacturers’ Warranties 231

      2) Past Consideration 232

      3) The Pre-existing Duty Rule 239

    11. Public Duty 239

    12. Duty Owed to a Third Party 242

    13. Duty Owed to the Promisor 244

      4) Partial Payment of a Debt 250

  30. Formality: Promises under Seal 256

  31. Reform 269

    Further Readings 274

    CHAPTER 8:

    WAIVER AND PROMISSORY ESTOPPEL 275

  32. Introduction 275

  33. Waiver, Estoppel by Representation and Foakes v. Beer 277

  34. The Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel 279

    1) Sword vs. Shield? 280

    2) Intended to Be Acted Upon 281

    3) The Nature of the Undertaking 283

    4) Reassertion of Rights upon Notice 285

  35. Proprietary Estoppel 287

  36. Waltons Stores (Interstate) Pty. v. Maher: Inching Toward Section 90 289

    Further Readings 293

    CHAPTER 9:

    PRIVITY OF CONTRACT 294

  37. Introduction 294

  38. Development and Rationale of the Rule 296

  39. Limitations on and Exceptions to the Rule 301

    1) Agency 301

    2) Trusts 303

    3) Collateral Contracts 304

    4) Tort Law 305

    5) Assignment 306

    6) Statutory Exceptions 307

    7) Additional Exceptions at Common Law 308

    1. Provisions Limiting the Liability of Employees 308

    2. Insurance 309

    3. Waiver of Rights against Third Parties 310

      ii) Coverage of Third Parties 312

    4. The Open-Textured “Principled Exception” 313

    5. Subsequent Variation or Annulment of the Promise 317

  40. Conclusion 319

    Further Readings 320

    PART THREE: VITIATING FACTORS 323

    CHAPTER 10:

    Misrepresentation 325

  41. Introduction 325

  42. The Elements of Misrepresentation 326

    1) Sales Talk 327

    2) Opinion 327

    3) Intention 328

    4) Law 329

    5) Materiality 330

    6) Inducement 331

  43. Non-disclosure as Misrepresentation 331

  44. Non-disclosure and Good Faith 334

  45. Rescission and Restitution 337

    1) Restoration of the Status Quo Ante 339

    2) Affirmation 342

    3) Intervention of Third-Party...

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