F., Re, (1983) 46 A.R. 321 (ProvCt)

Judge:Bowker, P.C.J.
Court:Provincial Court (Alberta)
Case Date:June 13, 1983
Jurisdiction:Alberta
Citations:(1983), 46 A.R. 321 (ProvCt)
 
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F., Re (1983), 46 A.R. 321 (ProvCt)

MLB headnote and full text

Re F.

Indexed As: F., Re

Alberta Provincial Court

Juvenile Division

Bowker, P.C.J.

June 13, 1983.

Summary:

A mother beat her 12 year old son in the buttocks with a leather belt until she was physically exhausted. This was the accepted family practice for discipline. The child was apprehended under s. 7(1) of the Child Welfare Act as a neglected child. The Director of Child Welfare applied for a determination that the child was in need of protection and should be subject to a supervision order. The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, allowed the application and granted the supervision order.

Guardian and Ward - Topic 819

Public trustee or guardian - Appointment - Child in need of protection - Evidence and proof - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, stated that although the standard of proving that a child was in need of protection under the Child Welfare Act was proof on a preponderance of evidence, a high standard of probability was required - See paragraphs 30 to 33.

Guardian and Ward - Topic 875

Public trustee or guardian - Powers - Exercise of - Respecting apprehension of child - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, held that when a social worker was satisfied that there were reasonable and probable grounds for believing that a child was in need of protection he had a duty to apprehend the child - The court held that the social worker was not required to make peripheral inquiries before the apprehension - See paragraphs 37 to 39.

Guardian and Ward - Topic 813

Public trustee or guardian - Appointment - Child in need of protection - General - A mother disciplined her 12 year old son by beating him on the bare buttocks with a leather strap until she was physically exhausted - The child suffered severe bruises and welts - The mother stated that this was the accepted method of discipline in their family, and that she would continue to discipline her children in that manner - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, held that the child was a child in need of protection under s. 7(1) of the Child Welfare Act - See paragraphs 43 to 46.

Guardian and Ward - Topic 819

Public trustee or guardian - Appointment - Child in need of protection - Evidence and proof - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, held that the provisions of the Child Welfare Act providing for the use of affidavit evidence at a hearing did not preclude the admission of hearsay evidence in child welfare cases - See paragraphs 85 to 90.

Infants - Topic 843

Parents of - Discipline - Rights of parent - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, held that the parental right to discipline children was superseded by the state's duty to ensure the welfare of the child - See paragraphs 102 to 104.

Infants - Topic 845

Parents of - Discipline - Corporal punishment - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, held that what was reasonable corporal punishment by a parent was an objective test, and not what the parent believed was subjectively reasonable - See paragraph 114.

Guardian and Ward - Topic 814

Public trustee or guardian - Appointment - Child in need of protection - Departmental supervision - A child was declared in need of protection under the Child Welfare Act because of excessive disciplinary beatings with a leather belt - The child suffered severe bruises and welts from the beating - The mother testified that she would continue to discipline her children in this manner in the future - The Director of Child Welfare applied for a supervision order under the Act - The Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, held that the mother's attitude and the fear of future injury to the child required the granting of the supervision order - See paragraphs 140 to 159.

Cases Noticed:

Re O., [1978] 3 W.W.R. 1 (Alta. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 22].

Children's Aid Society of Winnipeg v. Champagne, [1978] 1 W.W.R. 174 (Man. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 30].

C.A.S. Winnipeg v. Bouvette (1976), 24 R.F.L. 350 (Man. C.A.), refd to. [para. 30].

Re Warnock and Garrigan (1979), 90 D.L.R.(3d) 396 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 30].

Re S. (1979), 10 R.F.L.(2d) 341 (Ont. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 30].

Re M. (L. & K.) (1979), 7 Alta. L.R.(2d) 220 (Alta. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 31].

Re Chrysler (1979), 5 R.F.L.(2d) 50 (Ont. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 31].

D. v. C.A.S. of Kent (1981), 18 R.F.L.(2d) 223 (Ont. Co. Ct.), refd to. [para. 31].

Official Solicitor v. K., [1965] A.C. 201 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 86].

R. v. Shingoose, [1967] S.C.R. 298, refd to. [para. 87].

R. v. Pagee (1963), 42 W.W.R.(N.S.) 241, refd to. [para. 87].

R. v. Arbuckle (1967), 59 W.W.R.(N.S.) 605, refd to. [para. 87].

E.C. v. Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto (1982), 37 O.R.(2d) 82 (Ont. Co. Ct.), refd to. [para. 88].

J. v. C., [1970] A.C. 668 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 103].

De Laurier v. Jackson, [1934] S.C.R. 149, refd to. [para. 103].

Adams v. McLeod, [1978] 2 S.C.R. 621; 20 N.R. 203, refd to. [para. 103].

McGee v. Waldern, [1971] 4 W.W.R. 684, refd to. [para. 103].

Re McQuaid (1982), 28 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 468; 79 A.P.R. 468; 24 R.F.L.(2d) 285, refd to. [para. 103].

Hepton v. Maat, [1957] S.C.R. 606 (S.C.C.), dist. [para. 106].

Re Moores & Feldstein (1973), 12 R.F.L. 273 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 106].

Elias v. Elias (1980), 8 Man.R.(2d) 114; 14 R.F.L.(2d) 228 (Man. Q.B.), refd to. [para. 106].

Dillman v. Dillman (1981), 43 N.S.R.(2d) 230; 81 A.P.R. 230 (N.S.S.C.), refd to. [para. 106].

Minister of Social Services v. G. (1982), 26 R.F.L.(2d) 440 (Sask. U.F.C.), dist. [para. 118].

R. v. Hopley (1860), 2 F. & F. 202, refd to. [para. 119].

R. v. Sarwer-Foner (1979), 8 R.F.L.(2d) 342 (Ont. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 129].

R. v. Baptiste (1981), 61 C.C.C.(2d) 438 (Ont. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 130].

R. v. Robinson (1899), 7 C.C.C. 52 (N.S. Co. Ct.), refd to. [para. 131].

R. v. Gaul (1904), 8 C.C.C. 178 (N.S.C.A.), refd to. [para. 131].

R. v. Campeau (1951), 103 C.C.C. 355 (Que. K.B. App. Ct.), refd to. [para. 131].

R. v. Haberstock, [1970] 1 C.C.C.(2d) 433 (Sask. C.A.), refd to. [para. 131].

R. v. Kanhai (1981), 9 Sask.R. 181; 124 D.L.R.(3d) 85 (Sask. D.C.), refd to. [para. 131].

R. v. Dimmell (1981), 55 C.C.C.(2d) 239 (Ont. Dist. Crim. Ct.), refd to. [para. 131].

Statutes Noticed:

Child Welfare Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. C-8, sect. 4, sect. 5 [para. 6]; sect. 7(1) [para. 21]; sect. 35 [para. 16].

Criminal Code of Canada, R.S.C. 1970, c. C-34, sect. 43 [para. 123].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Wilson, Children and the Law, 1978, p. 58 [para. 32].

Australian Institute on Family Studies, 1982, Paper No. 5 [para. 107].

Bates, Corporal Punishment in its Legal, Historical and Social Context (1983), 12 Man. L.J. 349 [para. 115].

Freeman, Violence in the Family (1979), p. 119 [para. 115].

Bala, Canadian Children's Law, 1982, p. 48 [para. 135].

Bulletin of Legal Developments, 1979, No. 9, Sweden, p. 90 [para. 135].

Counsel:

Patricia Innes, for the Director of Child Welfare;

Christopher Evans, Q.C., for the parents;

Philip Ketchum, Q.C., on behalf of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

This case was heard at Edmonton, Alberta, before Bowker, P.C.J., of the Alberta Provincial Court, Juvenile Division, who delivered the following judgment on June 13, 1983.

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