AuthorPatrick J. Monahan
Nearly thirty years ago, Francis Fukuyama proclaimed the “end of
history,” ref‌lecting his belief that liberal democracy had become
universalized as the f‌inal form of human government. ree dec-
ades later, his conf‌idence in the global triumph of liberal democracy
appears increasingly open to question. As the Economist Intelligence
Unit reported in its Democracy Index 2020: In Sickness and in Health?,
democratic political institutions globally have come under increas-
ing pressure in recent years, and less than  percent of the world’s
population now lives in what the Intelligence Unit regards as a “full
e lifeblood of liberal democratic government is the rule of
law the principle whereby all persons and institutions are account-
able to laws that are publicly promulgated, equally enforced, and
independently adjudicated. e rule of law has long been regarded as
an “unqualif‌ied human good,” even by those who acknowledge that
few functioning political s ystems have lived up to the full aspirations
of this noble ideal. But as with liberal democracy, the principle of
the rule of law has itself has faced signif‌icant challenges in recent
years, none more pressing that the chaotic outcome of the  US
presidential election and the continued baseless e orts by the former
president to pressure public ocials to overturn the results.

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