AuthorRobert J. Sharpe; Kent Roach
Aboriginal rights. R ights protected under section 35(1) of the Constitu-
tion Act, 1982 and based on practices that the court s have deemed inte-
gral to disti nct Indigenous societies that existed at the time of European
Aborigin al title. A distinct interest in land that can only be sold to the
government (Crown), must be preserved for future generations, and
is established by occupation and use since the assertion of European
Absolute liability. An oence for which the accused is guilt y once it
is proven that the prohibited act was committed and regard less of the
existence of any fault, including negligence.
Adjudicative facts. Facts relating to t he immediate dispute between the
parties, “who, what, where, and how” (as disting uished from “legislative
fa cts ”).
Adverse impact discrimination. A seemingly neutral law t hat has a
disproportionate impact on members of groups protected on the basis
of an enumerated or analogous ground.
Armative action. Positive measures intended to benef‌it a disadvan-
taged group.
Agency shop provision. A provision in a collective agreement compel-
ling payment of dues to a union by non-member employees.

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