A Vision of the Future of Policing in Can-
ada: Police-Challenge 2000, 273
Abbott v Toronto Police Board Services
(HRTO), 166–68
bias-neutral policing and, 131
data and, 253
ending racial prof‌iling, 311–13
peer review and, 344
component of racial prof‌iling def‌in-
ition, 43T1.1
non-specif‌ic, 27
racial prof‌iling and social domains,
surveillance, 27
Adverse impacts, 41–42
component of racial prof‌iling def‌in-
ition, 43T1.1
racial prof‌iling and, 306–7
Advocacy groups, 16
African Canadian Legal Clinic (ACLC),
16, 30, 84, 300
racial prof‌iling def‌inition, 61–62
women and racial prof‌iling, 205
African Canadians
drug of‌fences and, 69n41
overrepresentation re charges, 69–70
stereotypes and, 64–65
Alberta Human Rights Commission
(AHRC), 15
Anamnesis, 5–6
Andrews test (SCC), 65–66
Anti-racial prof‌iling
initiatives, employees and, 350–51
policy, 313–16
Aporia, 5–6
Arnstein’s Ladder of Public Participa-
tion, 284F12.1
Arrests, marijuana charges, TPS data,
Aversive racism, 227, 227n21
Bias. See also Racial bias; Stereotypes/
explicit vs implicit, 230–31
jury selection (US), 235
legal decision makers, of, 236–37
police-minority relations, 226–28
Bias-based policing, 40–41
Bias-free policing, 307–8. See also
challenges, 338
encouragement system, 343–44
framework model, 309–51, 309T13.1
outreach program and, 348
peer review and, 344
performance management and, 339–41
ending racial prof‌iling, 331–34
recommendations, 334–35
Bias-neutral policing. See also Bias-
based policing; Policing
accountability and, 131

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