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(1.) See Blank (2009) for a discussion of the distinction and its relevance to policymakers.
(2.) The results for Canada's total trade are similar to those for trade with its North American partners.
(3.) Hodgson (2008).
(4.) The share of entry-stage exports was the same in 2006 as in 1990, while end-stage exports' share was correspondingly higher in 2006 than in 1990. The share of entry-stage imports was lower in 2006 than in 1990, while the reverse was true for end-stage imports. The changes were relatively small in all cases.
(5.) Goldfarb and Chu report that Canada's top twenty-five...