AuthorLesli Bisgould
ProfessionAdjunct Professor, Faculty of Law
Orwell was right. Some animals really are more equal than others.1
For present purposes, that st atement has three connotations: f‌irst,
as between animals themselves; second, as between human s them-
selves; and f‌inally (and the ultimate subject of thi s book), between
humans and all the other species that comprise the animal kingdom.
Each of these is considered below, leading to an overv iew of the gen-
eral nature of the problems facing an imals in the legal system, or more
precisely, facing the people who seek some sort of legal consideration
of their interests.
There are some animals on whom Canadians spend billions of dollars
buying the right food, desig ner clothing, and fur niture; getting medical
care, prescription dr ugs, and the expensive insurance policies to as-
sure them; and arranging daycare, therapy, even yoga. These animals
have cute names. We hire photographers to take their port raits. They
are our friends and companions. They live in our homes and might
even sleep in our beds.2
1 George Orwell, A nimal Farm (New York: Signet Classics, 1986).
2 In 2007, approximately 7.9 million cats an d 5.9 million dogs l ived in Canadian
homes; see John Soren son, About Canada: Animal Rights (Wi nnipeg: Fernwood,
2010) at 9 [Sorenson].

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