AuthorKent Roach
| 195
one | Introduction
Part I of the Constitution Act, , being Schedule B to the Canada Act  (UK),
, c .
Jean-Paul Brodeur, e Policing Web (Oxford: Oxford University Press, ).
Council of Canadian Academies, Policing Canada in the st Century: New Policing for
New Challenges (Ottawa: e Expert Panel on the Future of Canadian Policing Models,
Council of Canadian Academies, ); Council of Canad ian Academies, Toward Peace,
Harmony, and Well-Being: Policing in Indigenous Communities (Ottawa: e Expert
Panel on Policing in Indigenous Com munities, Council of Canadian Academies, )
at  [Toward Peace, Harmony, and Well-Being].
Kent Roach & ML Friedland, “Borderline Justice: Policin g in the Two Niagaras” ()
: American Journal of Criminal Law  at .
Rosa Brooks, Tangled Up in Blue: Policing the American City (New York: Penguin Press,
) at .
Ibid at .
See Craig Bradley, e Failure of the Criminal Procedure Revolution (Philadelphia: Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania Press, ), discussing t he failure of complex American consti-
tutional rules to change polici ng in the United States. See Kent Roach, Due Process and
Victims’ Rights (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ) ch  & , discussing the
critical thesis of how judicia lly enforced due process in a minority of cases can result in
increased crime control.
See Stephen Rushin, Federal Intervention in American Police Departments (New York:
Cambridge University Press, ), noting the potent ial of injunctions and consent
decrees to produce more data about police-publ ic interactions and incentive for reforms.
In , the Peel Police and its Police Se rvice Board signed an agreement with the
Ontario Human Rights Commission to collect data and develop po licies and remedies
to prevent racial proling. Memorandum of Understanding between the Ontario Human
Rights Commission and Peel Regional Police and Regional Municipality of Peel Police Servi-
ces Board ( October ), online :
understanding-between-o ntario-human-rights-commission-and-peel-regional-
196 | Canadian PoliCing: Why and hoW it Must Change
Craig Forcese & Kent Roach, False Security: e Radicalization of Canadian Anti-
terrorism ( Toronto: Irwin Law, ).
 Kent Roach, “e Limits of a Charte r-Proof and Crime-Based Response to Terrorism”
in Ronald J Daniels, Patrick Macklem & Kent Roach, eds, e Security of Freedom: Ess ays
on Canada’s Anti-terrorism Bill (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ) at .
 Toward Peace, Harmony, and Well-Being, above note  at –.
 Kent Roach, Canadian Jus tice, Indigenous Injustice: e Gerald Stanley and Colten Boushie
Case (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, ) at –.
 Robyn Maynard, Policing Black Lives : State Violence in Canada om Slavery to the
Present (Halifax: Fernwood, ) at  and .
 As quoted in John Sewell, Police: Urban Policing in Canada (Toronto: Lorimer, ) at .
 “S ir Robert Peel’s Principles of Law Enforcement ” (), onlin e: www.ottawapo- On the o rigins of these principles that
were compiled without full citation by historian C harles Reith in the s, see Susan
A Lentz and Robert H Chaires, “ e Invention of Peel’s Principles: A Study of Policing
‘Textbook’ History” () : Journal of Criminal Justice ; Clive Emsley, “Peel’s
Principles, Police Principles” in Jennifer M Brown, ed , e Future of Policing (London:
Routledge, ) at .
 Greg Marquis, e Vigilant Eye: Policing Canada om  to / (Halifax: Fernwood,
) at .
 Philip C Stenning “ e Role of Police Boards and Commissions as Institutions of
Municipal Police Governance” in Cliord Shearing , ed, Organizational Police Deviance
(Toronto: Butterworths, ) at .
 Robert J Sharpe, e L azier Murder: Prince Edward County,  (Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, ) at  and ; and Philip Girard, Jim Phil lips & RBlake Brown,
A History of Law in Canada, Volume One: Beginnings to  (Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, ) at  and .
 Philip C Stenning, Police Gover nance in First Nations in Ontario (Toronto: Centre of
Criminology, University of Toronto Press, ) at .
 Jenny Higgins, “e Newfoundland Constabulary : -” (), online : New-
foundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site
newfoundland-constabula ry.php.
 Zhiqui Lin, Policing the Wild North-West: A Sociological Study of the Provincial Police in
Alberta and Saskatchewan, – (Calgary: University of Calgary Press,  ) at .
 RC McLeod, “Sam Steele” Canadian Encyclopedia ( January ), onl ine:
 Steve Hewitt, “September : A Re-i nterpretation of the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police’s Handling of the  E stevan Strike and Riot” ()  Labour/Le Travail
. See also Steve Hewitt, Riding to the Rescue: e Transformation of the RCMP in
Saskatchewan and Alberta, – (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, ).
 Ibid at .
 Will iam Sterling Blair, “Royal Canadian Mounted Police -  Departmental
Plan” (–), online ( pdf): Governme nt of Canada
media//original/ccacfccffeecd .pdf.
 Statistics Canada, “Police Resources in Canada, ,” by Patricia Conor et al, in Jur-
istat, Catalogue No --X ( December ), onli ne (pdf): www 
n/en/pub/--x//article/ -eng.pdf?st=PZ gZUjNT.
 Ibid.
Notes for Introduction | 197
 Ibid.
 “Police Reputation: A Special Update to Leger ’s Annual Police Reputation Index”
(June ), online (p df): leger.com/wp- content/uploads///Police-
 Statistics Canada, “Public Perceptions of the Police in Canada’s Provinces, ,” by
Dyna Ibrahim, in Juristat, Catalogue No --X ( November ) at , online
(pdf ): www/en/pub/--x//artic le/-eng.pdf?
 “Polici ng in Canada: Major Study Reveals Four Mindsets Driving Current Opinions
and Future Policy Preferences” ( October ), online ( pdf): Angus Reid Institute //.._Policing.pdf; “D efend
or Defund? One-in-Four Support Cutting Police Bud gets; Most Back Social Welfare
Over Hiring More Cops” ( October ), onl ine (pdf ): Angus Reid Institute //.._Policin g.pdf.
 Maru Public Opinion ( February ), onl ine: https://static
static/aebac/t/faeeeaecbbee/ /
Shaken+to+the+core+++.p df; Maru Public Opinion ( February ),
online: https ://staticaebac/t/
 RSC,  , c  (th Supp) [Emergencies Act].
 Joanne Chianello, “Protest Has Cost City of Ottawa More an M” CBC News
(February ), online: www.
 Ipsos Reid poll ( February  ) question .., online: https ://
news-polls/majority-cana dians-believe-trucker-protests-COVID-restrict ions.
 e Ottawa Police Service Board had over  pages of policies, i ncluding policies on
policing Indige nous protests and labour disputes, but not the Parliamentary precinc t.
City of Ottawa Police Service Board, Pol icy Manuel (April ), online : https:// ites/default/les/docs/policy_manual_may_
 Canada, Commission of Inquiry Concerning Certain Activities of t he Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, Second Report — Freedom and Security Under the Law (Ottawa: Supply
and Services, August ) (DC McDona ld, Chairman) at ; Ontario, Report of
the Ipperwash Inquiry: Policy Analysis, vol  (Toronto: Queen’s Printer, ) (Hon
Sidney B Linden, Commission er) at –; Ontario, “Independent Civilian Review
into Matters Relating to the G Summit: Rep ort” (June ) (Hon John W Morden,
Reviewer), online (pdf ): Toronto Police Services Board/ICRG-
Mordenreport.pdf. See also Andrew Sancto n, “‘Democratic Policing’: Lessons from
Ipperwash and Caledonia” () : Canadian Public Administration .
 Emergencies Act, above note , s .
 Matthew Lapierre, “Ottawa Police Board Cancels Regular Meeting, Drawing Criticism
from the Community” Ottawa Citizen ( February ), onl ine: https:// ice-board-cancels-regular-meeting-
drawing-criticism-from-communit y:~:text=AmovebytheOttawa,
snarleddowntownforthreeweeks; Horizon Ottawa, Press Release,
“Horizon Ottawa Decries Last Minute Cancellation of Police Services B oard Meeting as
an ‘Insulting Breach of Democracy’” ( February  ), online:

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