R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd. et al., (2001) 276 N.R. 1 (SCC)

JudgeMcLachlin, C.J.C., L'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier, Iacobucci, Major, Bastarache, Binnie, Arbour and LeBel, JJ.
CourtSupreme Court (Canada)
Case DateOctober 19, 2001
JurisdictionCanada (Federal)
Citations(2001), 276 N.R. 1 (SCC);2001 SCC 70

R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd. (2001), 276 N.R. 1 (SCC)

MLB headnote and full text

[French language version follows English language version]

[La version française vient à la suite de la version anglaise]

....................

Temp. Cite: [2001] N.R. TBEd. OC.034

Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd., Gilles Thériault, Luc Loyer, Éric Schryer, Jean Grégoire, Daniel Matte, Raymond Matte, Paul Rock, Marc Piché, Denis St-Amour, Ray Matte Couvreur, 161614 Canada Inc., Ateliers de Menuiserie Allaire Inc., Paul Rodrigue, Raymond Plante and Michel Mongeon (appellants) v. Her Majesty the Queen (respondent) and The Attorney General of Quebec (mis en cause) and Commission de la construction du Québec, Centrale des syndicats démocratiques (CSD-Construction), Confédération des syndicats nationaux (CSN-Construction), Conseil provincial du Québec des métiers de la construction (International), Fédération des travailleurs du Québec (FTQ-Construction), Canadian Coalition of Open Shop Contracting Associations and Canadian Office of the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO (interveners)

(26664; 2001 SCC 70)

Indexed As: R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd. et al.

Supreme Court of Canada

McLachlin, C.J.C., L'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier, Iacobucci, Major, Bastarache, Binnie, Arbour and LeBel, JJ.

October 19, 2001.

Summary:

A number of construction industry employers and workers were charged, res­pectively, with hiring employees who did not have the competency certificates required pursuant to the Act Respecting Labour Relations, Vocational Training and Man­power Management in the Construction Industry (Que.), or with working on a con­struction project without holding the said certificates.

The Court of Québec found the accused guilty. The accused appealed.

The Quebec Superior Court, in a decision reported [1998] R.J.Q. 911, dismissed the appeal. The accused moved for leave to appeal.

The Quebec Court of Appeal dismissed the motion. The accused sought leave to appeal to the Supreme Court of Canada.

The Supreme Court of Canada granted leave. The court then dismissed the appeal, McLachlin, C.J.C., Bastarache, Major and Binnie, JJ., dissenting.

Civil Rights - Topic 2103

Freedom of association - General - Scope of right - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2160.4 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 2144.1

Freedom of association - Limitations on - Collective bargaining and employer or employee groups - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2160.4 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 2155

Freedom of association - Limitations on - Labour legislation - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that looking back over nearly 20 years of the application of the Charter, it was clear that the court has been reluctant to accept that the whole field of labour relations should fall under the constitutional guarantee of s. 2(d) - The law of collective bargaining, as it has developed in Canada since the Depression beginning in 1929 and the Second World War, as well as union and employer con­flicts like strikes and lockouts, have been left largely to legislative control based on government policy - Laws restricting the choice of a bargaining agent or forbidding strikes and lockouts were deemed not to engage the guarantee of freedom of asso­ciation as such - At the same time, the jurisprudence of the court never held that labour laws were immune to Charter review - See paragraphs 156 to 162, 239.

Civil Rights - Topic 2157

Freedom of association - Limitations on - Regulation of professionals - The Supreme Court of Canada, per Iacobucci, J., stated: "... it seems to me that where legislation compels the association of professional or skilled organizations, in which membership must be acquired to carry on one's pro­fession or trade, such state action generally will be constitutionally valid. This is pri­marily because membership in the associ­ation is integral to, and serves as a reflec­tion of, the member's work capabilities and/or professional status. Further, this structure created by the legislation will serve the public interest. Thus, unless it can be shown that the compelled associ­ation seriously undermines an individual's liberty interests, the guarantees afforded by [Charter] s. 2(d) will have been respected in such circumstances" - Bastarache, J., dissenting (McLach­lin, C.J.C., Major and Binnie, JJ., concur­ring), stated that, with respect to the pro­fessional re­quir­ements of pro­fessional associations such as medical associations and law societies, the need for protection of the public could require a forced asso­ciation which was justified under s. 1 - See para­graphs 36, 285 and 286.

Civil Rights - Topic 2160.4

Freedom of association - Limitations on - Mandatory association with group - Con­struction workers in Quebec were statutorily required to hold competency certificates and to join one of five union groups - Under the statute, each worker was issued a card that indicated, inter alia, the union the worker chose - No employer could hire a worker unless the worker held that card - The statute made it an offence for workers to work without holding the competency certificates and for employers to hire workers who did not hold such certificates - Employers and workers charged with offences under the statute challenged that the scheme infringed the freedom of association guaranteed by s. 2(d) of the Charter, which freedom included a right not to associate - The Supreme Court of Canada held that the scheme was constitutional - Eight judges found that the freedom of associ­ation encompassed a negative right to be free from compelled association - LeBel, Gon­thier and Arbour, JJ., found that the scheme did not infringe s. 2(d) absent evidence of "ideological conformity" being imposed on union members - Even if it did, the scheme was saved under s. 1 - L'Heureux-Dubé, J., also found no infrin­gement - Iacobucci, J., found that the scheme infringed s. 2(d) where it did not promote the common good and infringed the accused's liberty interests - However, the scheme was saved under s. 1 - Mc­Lachlin, C.J.C., Basta­rache, Major and Bin­nie, JJ., dissenting, found that the scheme infringed s. 2(d) because "ideo­logical conformity" was imposed.

Civil Rights - Topic 2181

Freedom of association - Right of - Gen­eral - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that it had adopted the view that, although the right of association repre­sented a social phenomenon involving the linking together of a number of persons, it belonged first to the individual - It fos­tered one's self-fulfilment by allowing one to develop one's qualities as a social being - The act of engaging in legal activities, in conjunction with others, received constitu­tional protection - See paragraphs 175 to 182.

Civil Rights - Topic 8348

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Application - Exceptions - Reasonable limits prescribed by law (Charter, s. 1) - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2160.4 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 8590

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Practice - Evidence - Judicial notice - The Supreme Court of Canada discussed whether statutorily required unionization of Quebec construction workers imposed "ideological conformity" on the workers and thus constituted an infringement of the freedom of association guarantee under s. 2(d) of the Charter - With respect to evidence of "ideological conformity", the court stated that the fact that unions inter­vened in political debate was well known and could be the object of judicial notice - The court added that taking judicial notice of the fact that Quebec unions had a con­stant ideology, acted in constant support of a particular cause or policy, and sought to impose that ideology on their members seemed far more controversial - It would require a leap of faith and logic, absent a proper factual record on the question - See paragraphs 224 to 227.

Evidence - Topic 2295

Special modes of proof - Judicial notice - Particular matters - Labour law - [See Civil Rights - Topic 8590 ].

Cases Noticed:

Lavigne v. Ontario Public Service Employees Union, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 211; 126 N.R. 161; 48 O.A.C. 241; 81 D.L.R.(4th) 545, consd. [paras. 3, 55, 87].

Ford Motor Co. of Canada Ltd. v. U.A.W.-I.C.O. (1946), 46 C.L.L.C. 159, consd. [para. 5].

R. v. Big M Drug Mart Ltd., [1985] 1 S.C.R. 295; 58 N.R. 81; 60 A.R. 161; [1985] 3 W.W.R. 481; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 18 D.L.R.(4th) 321; 37 Alta. L.R.(2d) 97; 85 C.L.L.C. 14,023; 13 C.R.R. 64, refd to. [paras. 8, 61, 255].

R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 200; 50 C.R.(3d) 1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308, consd. [para. 8]; refd to. [para. 8].

Canadian Egg Marketing Agency v. Pine­view Poultry Product et al., [1998] 3 S.C.R. 157; 231 N.R. 201, refd to. [paras. 12, 57, 181].

Baker v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1999] 2 S.C.R. 817; 243 N.R. 22, consd. [para. 12].

Edmonton Journal v. Alberta (Attorney General), [1989] 2 S.C.R. 1326; 102 N.R. 321; 103 A.R. 321; 64 D.L.R.(4th) 577, refd to. [para. 12].

R. v. O'Connor (H.P.), [1995] 4 S.C.R. 411; 191 N.R. 1; 68 B.C.A.C. 1; 112 W.A.C. 1; 103 C.C.C.(3d) 1, refd to. [para. 12].

R. v. Mills, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 863; 67 N.R. 241; 16 O.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 12].

Mooring v. National Parole Board et al., [1996] 1 S.C.R. 75; 192 N.R. 161; 70 B.C.A.C. 1; 115 W.A.C. 1; 104 C.C.C.(3d) 97, refd to. [para. 12].

R. v. Sharpe (J.R.), [2001] 1 S.C.R. 45; 264 N.R. 201; 146 B.C.A.C. 161; 239 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [paras. 12, 144].

R. v. Keegstra, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 697; 117 N.R. 1; 114 A.R. 81; 1 C.R.(4th) 129; 77 Alta. L.R.(2d) 193; [1991] 2 W.W.R. 1; 61 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 3 C.R.R.(2d) 193, refd to. [para. 12].

Sheena B., Re, [1995] 1 S.C.R. 315; 176 N.R. 161; 78 O.A.C. 1; 122 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 13].

B.(R.) v. Children's Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto - see Sheena B., Re.

Reference Re Compulsory Arbitration, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 313; 74 N.R. 99; 78 A.R. 1; 38 D.L.R.(4th) 161, refd to. [paras. 14, 62]; consd. [para. 158].

Delisle v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., [1999] 2 S.C.R. 989; 244 N.R. 33, consd. [paras. 54, 157].

R. v. Turpin, Siddiqui and Clauzel, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1296; 96 N.R. 115; 34 O.A.C. 115; 48 C.C.C.(3d) 8; 69 C.R.(3d) 97; 39 C.R.R. 306, refd to. [para. 58].

Merry v. Manitoba and Manitoba Medical Association (1989), 58 Man.R.(2d) 221 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 58].

Sigurjonsson v. Iceland (1993), 16 E.H.R.R. 462 (Eur. Ct.), refd to. [paras. 70, 250].

Chassagnou and others v. France (1999), 29 E.H.R.R. 615 (Eur. Ct.), refd to. [paras. 72, 250].

Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada v. Northwest Territories (Commissioner) et al., [1990] 2 S.C.R. 367; 112 N.R. 269; [1990] 5 W.W.R. 385, refd to. [para. 100].

Public Service Alliance of Canada v. Canada, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 424; 75 N.R. 161, refd to. [para. 159].

Retail, Wholesale, Department Store Union, Locals 544, 496, 635 and 955 et al. v. Saskatchewan et al., [1987] 1 S.C.R. 460; 74 N.R. 321; 56 Sask.R. 277, refd to. [para. 159].

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union - Canada Area Locals 500, 502, 503 et al. v. Canada, [1994] 1 S.C.R. 150; 163 N.R. 73, refd to. [para. 160].

Dolphin Delivery Ltd. v. Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, Local 580, Peterson and Alexander, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 573; 71 N.R. 83; 33 D.L.R.(4th) 174; 38 C.C.L.T. 184; 25 C.R.R. 321, refd to. [para. 167].

Law v. Minister of Employment and Immigration, [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497; 236 N.R. 1; 170 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 168].

Renvoi relatif à la Loi sur l'instruction publique, L.Q. 1988, c. 84, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 511; 154 N.R. 1; 56 Q.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 168].

Reference Re Education Act (Qué.) - see Renvoi relatif à la Loi sur l'instruction publique, L.Q., 1988, c. 84.

Arsenault-Cameron et al. v. Prince Edward Island, [2000] 1 S.C.R. 3; 249 N.R. 140; 184 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 44; 559 A.P.R. 44, refd to. [para. 168].

Mahe, Martel, Dubé and Association d'Ecole Georges et Julia Bugnet v. Alberta, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 342; 105 N.R. 321; 106 A.R. 321, refd to. [para. 168].

Delgamuukw et al. v. British Columbia et al., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1010; 220 N.R. 161; 99 B.C.A.C. 161; 162 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 169].

R. v. Adams (G.W.), [1996] 3 S.C.R. 101; 202 N.R. 89; [1996] 4 C.N.L.R. 1, refd to. [para. 169].

Black & Company v. Law Society of Alberta, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 591; 93 N.R. 266; 96 A.R. 352, refd to. [para. 181].

R. v. Skinner, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1235; 109 N.R. 241; 98 N.S.R.(2d) 181; 263 A.P.R. 181, refd to. [para. 181].

Reference Re Sections 193 and 195.1(1)(c) of the Criminal Code, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1123; 109 N.R. 81; 68 Man.R.(2d) 1; 56 C.C.C.(3d) 65, refd to. [para. 181].

Libman v. Quebec (Attorney General), [1997] 3 S.C.R. 569; 218 N.R. 241, refd to. [para. 181].

Syndicat national des employés de la commission scolaire régionale de l'Outaouais (CSN) v. Union des employés de service, local 298 (FTQ), [1988] 2 S.C.R. 1048; 95 N.R. 161; 24 Q.A.C. 244, refd to. [para. 197].

U.E.S., Local 298 v. Bibeault - see Syndicat national des employés de la commission scolaire régionale de l'Outaouais (CSN) v. Union des employés de service, local 298 (FTQ).

Planet Development Corp. and Lester (W.W.) (1978) Ltd. v. United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry in the United States and Canada, Local 740, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 644; 123 N.R. 241; 88 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 15; 274 A.P.R. 15; 76 D.L.R.(4th) 389, refd to. [para. 197].

Wallace v. United Grain Growers Ltd., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 701; 219 N.R. 161; 123 Man.R.(2d) 1; 159 W.A.C. 1; 152 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 198].

R. v. Find (K.) (2001), 269 N.R. 149; 146 O.A.C. 236 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 225].

R. v. Williams (V.D.), [1998] 1 S.C.R. 1128; 226 N.R. 162; 107 B.C.A.C. 1; 174 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 227].

Willick v. Willick, [1994] 3 S.C.R. 670; 173 N.R. 321; 125 Sask.R. 81; 81 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 227].

Lincoln Federal Labour Union v. Northwestern Iron & Metal Co. (1949), 335 U.S. 525 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 245].

American Federation of Labor v. American Sash & Door Co. (1949), 335 U.S. 538 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 245].

Railway Employees' Department v. Hanson (1956), 351 U.S. 225 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 245].

International Association of Machinists v. Street (1961), 367 U.S. 740 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 246].

Brotherhood of Railway and Steamship Clerks v. Allan (1963), 373 U.S. 113 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 246].

Abood v. Detroit Board of Education (1977), 431 U.S. 209 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 246].

Ellis v. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline & Steamship Clerks (1984), 466 U.S. 435 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 247].

Chicago Teachers' Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson (1986), 475 U.S. 292 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 247].

Communications Workers of America v. Beck (1988), 487 U.S. 735 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 247].

Lehnert v. Ferris Faculty Association (1991), 500 U.S. 507 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 247].

Young, James and Webster v. United Kingdom (1981), 4 E.H.R.R. 38 (Eur. Ct.), refd to. [para. 250].

LeCompte, Van Leuven and De Meyere v. Belgium (1981), 4 E.H.R.R. 1 (Eur. Ct.), refd to. [para. 250].

Gustafsson v. Sweden (1996), 22 E.H.R.R. 409 (Eur. Ct.), refd to. [para. 250].

Corbiere et al. v. Canada (Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs) et al., [1999] 2 S.C.R. 203; 239 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 253].

Egan and Nesbitt v. Canada, [1995] 2 S.C.R. 513; 182 N.R. 161; 124 D.L.R.(4th) 609, refd to. [para. 253].

RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 255].

Vriend et al. v. Alberta, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 493; 224 N.R. 1; 212 A.R. 237; 168 W.A.C. 237, refd to. [para. 255].

Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur général), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927; 94 N.R. 167; 24 Q.A.C. 2; 58 D.L.R.(4th) 577; 25 C.P.R.(3d) 417, refd to. [para. 256].

R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al., [1986] 2 S.C.R. 713; 71 N.R. 161; 19 O.A.C. 239; 30 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 55 C.R.(3d) 193; 35 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 28 C.R.R. 1, refd to. [para. 256].

R. v. Edwards Books and Art Ltd. - see R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al.

M. v. H., [1999] 2 S.C.R. 3; 238 N.R. 179; 121 O.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 257].

Taylor and Western Guard Party v. Canadian Human Rights Commission, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 892; 117 N.R. 191; 75 D.L.R.(4th) 577, refd to. [para. 265].

United Food and Commercial Workers, Local 1518 v. KMart Canada Ltd., [1999] 2 S.C.R. 1083; 245 N.R. 1; 128 B.C.A.C. 1; 208 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 267].

Attis v. Board of Education of District No. 15 et al., [1996] 1 S.C.R. 825; 195 N.R. 81; 171 N.B.R.(2d) 321; 437 A.P.R. 321, refd to. [para. 268].

Ross v. New Brunswick School District No. 15 - see Attis v. Board of Education of District No. 15 et al.

R. v. Chaulk and Morrissette, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1303; 119 N.R. 161; 69 Man.R.(2d) 161; [1991] 2 W.W.R. 385; 62 C.C.C.(3d) 193; 1 C.R.R.(2d) 1; 2 C.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 268].

Eldridge et al. v. British Columbia (Attorney General) et al., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624; 218 N.R. 161; 96 B.C.A.C. 81; 155 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 268].

Reference Re Secession of Quebec, [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217; 228 N.R. 203, refd to. [para. 275].

Statutes Noticed:

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, art. 10(2) [para. 13].

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982, sect. 1, sect. 2 [para. 98].

Civil Code of Québec, L.Q. 1991, c. 64, art. 2085 [para. 213]; art. 2097 [para. 197].

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Free­doms, 213 U.N.T.S. 221, art. 11 [para. 172].

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 993 U.N.T.S. 3, art. 6 [para. 30]; art. 8(1)(a) [para. 11].

Labour Relations, Vocational Training and Manpower Management in the Construc­tion Industry, Act Respecting, R.S.Q. 1977, c. R-20, sect. 1(a), sect. 1(b), sect. 28, sect. 30, sect. 32, sect. 33, sect. 34, sect. 35, sect. 36 [para. 98]; sect. 36.1 [para. 84]; sect. 38, sect. 39, sect. 85.5, sect. 85.6, sect. 94, sect. 119.1 [para. 98].

Labour Relations, Vocational Training and Manpower Management in the Construc­tion Industry Act Regulations (Que.), Regulation respecting the registration certificate issued by the Office de la construction du Québec, R.R.Q. 1981, c. R-20, r. 3, sect. 1 [para. 98].

Registration certificate issued by the Office de la construction du Québec, Regulation respecting - see Labour Relations, Voca­tional Training and Manpower Manage­ment in the Construction Industry Act Regulations (Que.).

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217 A(III) U.N. Doc. A/810, p. 71 (1948), art. 20 [paras. 11, 192].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Adams, George W., Canadian Labour Law (2nd Ed. 1993) (2000 Looseleaf Update), pp. 1-1 to 1-10 [para. 215]; 15-43 to 15-45 [para. 274].

Beaudry, Christian, et Roy, Claudine, Aperçu du contexte législatif, dans O­gilvy Renault, La construction au Qué­bec: perspectives juridiques, 1998, pp. 11 to 17 [para. 135].

Bercusson, Brian, European Labour Law. Toronto (1997), c. 19, p. 248 [para. 251].

Blais, André, et al., Making Sense of the Vote in the 2000 Canadian Election, paper prepared for the 2001 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Quebec City (2001), generally [para. 226].

Boivin, Jean, et Guilbault, Jacques, Le gouvernement du Parti québécois et l'orientation idéologique des centrales syndicales, in Les relations patronales-syndicales au Québec, 1982, pp. 85 to 86, 87 [para. 22]; 87 to 89 [para. 27].

Boyer, J. Patrick, Money and Message: The Law Governing Election Financing, Advertising, Broadcasting and Cam­paigning in Canada (1983), pp. 219 to 240 [para. 230].

Brunelle, Christian, Discrimination et obligation d'accommodement en milieu de travail syndiqué, 2001, pp. 236 et seq. [para. 221].

Cantor, Norman L., Forced Payments to Service Institutions and Constitutional Interests in Ideological Non-Association (1983), 36 Rutgers L. Rev. 3, generally [para. 58].

Carrothers, A.W.R., Palmer, E.E., and Rayner, W.B., Collective Bargaining Law in Canada (2nd Ed. 1986), pp. 3 to 30 [para. 215].

Dickson, Brian, The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Context and Evol­ution, in Beaudoin, Gérald-A., and Mendes, Errol, eds., The Canadian Char­ter of Rights and Freedoms (3rd Ed. 1996), p. 1-15 [para. 12].

Dion, Gérard, Jurisdictional Disputes, in Goldenberg, H. Carl, and Crispo, John H.G., eds., Construction Labour Rela­tions (1968) 333, p. 336 [para. 264].

Dubé, Jean-Louis, Décrets et comités paritaires: L'extension juridique des conventions collectives, 1990, pp. 5 et seq., 12 to 15 [para. 119].

Dunberry, Éric, Les ententes de libéralisa­tion des marchés, dans Ogilvy Renault, La construction au Québec: perspectives juridiques, 1998, pp. 45, 62, 72 to 73 [para. 237].

Etherington, Brian, Freedom of Associ­ation and Compulsory Union Dues: Towards a Purposive Conception of a Freedom to Not Associate (1987), 19 Ottawa L. Rev. 1, pp. 43 to 44 [para. 195].

Etherington, Brian, Lavigne v. OPSEU: Moving Toward or Away From a Free­dom to Not Associate (1991), 23 Ottawa L. Rev. 533, p. 547 [para. 184].

Gagnon, Robert P., Le droit du travail du Québec: pratiques et théories, 4e éd., 1999, pp. 51 to 52 [para. 214]; 329 to 330 [para. 197].

Gagnon, Robert P., LeBel, Louis et Verge, Pierre, Droit du travail, 2e éd., 1991, pp. 16 to 32 [para. 215]; 529 to 530 [para. 163].

Gaudreault-DesBiens, Jean-François, Le sexe et le droit: Sur le féminisme juridique de Catharine MacKinnon, 2001, p. 91 [para. 268].

Hébert, Gérard, Labour Relations in the Quebec Construction Industry, Part I: The System of Labour Relations (1977), pp. 9 to 64 [para. 258].

Hogg, Peter W., Constitutional Law of Canada, vol. 2 (1992 Looseleaf Ed.) (2000 Update, Release 1), p. 56-18.2 [para. 69].

Hutchinson, Allan C., Waiting for Coraf: A Critique of Law and Rights (1995), generally [para. 162].

Leclerc, Claudine, et Sexton, Jean, La sécurité d'emploi dans l'industrie de la construction au Québec, 1983, pp. 26 to 27 [para. 264].

MacNeil, Michael, Lynk, Michael, and Engelmann, Peter, Trade Union Law in Canada (1994 Looseleaf Ed.) (2000 Update, Release 6), p. 2-13 [para. 4].

Mandel, Michael, The Charter of Rights & the Legalization of Politics in Canada (1994), pp. 269 et seq. [para. 162].

Mazeaud, Antoine, Droit du travail, 2e éd., 2000, pp. 204 to 205 [para. 251].

Mireault, Réal, Témoignage sur l'évolution du régime des relations du travail dans l'industrie de la construction, dans Vingt-cinq ans de pratique en relations industrielles au Québec, sous la direction de Rodrigue Blouin, 1990, 599, pp. 612 to 613 [para. 129]; 616 [para. 130].

Morin, Fernand, et Brière, Jean-Yves, Le droit de l'emploi au Québec, 1998, pp. 212 to 213 [para. 214]; 586 to 587 [para. 127].

Murray, Gregor, et Verge, Pierre, La représentation syndicale: Visage juridique actuel et futur, 1999, pp. 85, 91, 93 to 94, 141, 146 [para. 22].

Québec, Commission de la construction, Service recherche et organisation, Histo­rique des relations du travail dans l'in­dustrie de la construction au Québec, 1990, pp. 3 [para. 125]; 5 to 6 [para. 128]; 8 [para. 26]; 9 to 15 [para. 129]; 11 [para. 26].

Québec, Commission de la construction, Service recherche et organisation, Ana­lyse de l'industrie de la construction au Québec 1992, Le Service, 1993, pp. 29 [para. 235]; 35 [para. 142].

Québec, Débats de l'Assemblée législa­tive, 3e sess., 28e lég., 16 décembre 1968, pp. 4987, 4998 [para. 26].

Québec, Rapport de la Commission d'en­quête sur l'exercice de la liberté syndi­cale dans l'industrie de la construction, 1975, generally, p. 24 [para. 26].

Québec, Rapport de la Commission sur la stabilisation du revenu et de l'emploi des travailleurs de l'industrie de la construc­tion, 1990, pp. 16 to 17 [para. 264]; 29, 44 to 45 [para. 258].

Québec, Rapport du Comité d'étude et de révision de la Loi sur les relations du travail dans l'industrie de la construction (C.E.R.L.I.C.), 1978, vol. 1, pp. 5 to 10 [para. 148]; 33 [para. 150].

Verge, Pierre, et Murray, Gregor, Le droit et les syndicats: aspects du droit syndical québécois, 1991, pp. 225, 238 to 239 [para. 226].

Verge, Pierre, et Vallée, Guylaine, Un droit du travail?: Essai sur la spécificité du droit du travail, 1997, p. 21 [para. 214].

Weiss, Manfred, Workers' Participation in the European Union, in Davies, P., et al., European Community Labour Law: Principles and Perspectives (1996), p. 213 [para. 251].

Wright, David, Unions and Political Action: Labour Law, Union Purposes and Democracy (1998), 24 Queen L.J. 1, p. 7 [para. 21].

Counsel:

Julius H. Grey, Elizabeth Goodwin and Vincent Basile, for the appellants;

Jean-François Jobin and Benoit Belleau, for the mis en cause;

Jean Ménard, for the intervener, Commis­sion de la construction du Québec;

Robert Toupin and Edward Kravitz, for the interveners, Centrale des syndicats démocratiques (CSD-Construction), Confédération des syndicats nationaux (CSN-Construction) and Conseil provin­cial du Québec des métiers de la cons­truction (International);

Robert Laurin and France Colette, for the intervener, Fédération des travailleurs du Québec (FTQ-Construction);

Peter A. Gall, Andrea L. Zwack and Corrado De Stefano, for the intervener, Canadian Coalition of Open Shop Con­tracting Associations;

Harold F. Caley, for the intervener, Cana­dian Office of the Building and Cons­truction Trades Department, AFL-CIO.

Solicitors of Record:

Grey Casgrain, Montréal, Quebec, for the appellants;

Bernard, Roy & Associés, Montréal, Quebec, for the respondent;

Bernard, Roy & Associés, Montréal, Quebec, for the mis en cause;

Ménard, Boucher, Montréal, Quebec, for the intervener, Commission de la cons­truction du Québec;

Robert Toupin, Montréal, Quebec, for the interveners, Centrale des syndicats dé­mo­cratiques (CSD-Construction), Con­fédé­ration des syndicats nationaux (CSN-Construction) and Conseil provin­cial du Québec des métiers de la cons­truction (International);

Robert Laurin, Sainte-Julie, Quebec, for the intervener, Fédération des travailleurs du Québec (FTQ-Construction);

Heenan Blaikie, Vancouver, British Col­umbia, for the intervener, Canadian Coa­lition of Open Shop Contracting Associ­ations;

Caley & Wray, Toronto, Ontario, for the intervener, Canadian Office of the Build­ing and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO.

This appeal was heard on March 20, 2000, by McLachlin, C.J.C., L'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier, Iacobucci, Major, Bastarache, Binnie, Arbour and LeBel, JJ., of the Supreme Court of Canada.

The judgment of the Supreme Court was delivered in both official languages on Oct­ober 19, 2001, and the following reasons were filed:

Bastarache, J. (McLachlin, C.J.C., Major and Binnie, JJ., concurring), dissent­ing - see para­graphs 1 to 52;

L'Heureux-Dubé, J. - see paragraphs 53 to 86;

LeBel, J. (Gonthier and Arbour, JJ., concurring) - see paragraphs 87 to 280;

Iacobucci, J. - see paragraphs 281 to 291.

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34 practice notes
  • Air Can. Pilots Assoc. v. Kelly, (2011) 383 F.T.R. 198 (FC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Federal Court (Canada)
    • February 3, 2011
    ...Commission, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 22; 126 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 220]. R. v. Advance Cutting and Coring Ltd. et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209; 276 N.R. 1; 2001 SCC 70, refd to. [para. Newfoundland (Treasury Board) v. Newfoundland Association of Public Employees, [2004] 3 S.C.R. 381; 326 N.R. 25; 242 ......
  • Dunmore v. Ontario (Attorney General), [2001] 3 SCR 1016
    • Canada
    • Supreme Court (Canada)
    • December 20, 2001
    ...157; Lavigne v. Ontario Public Service Employees Union, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 211; R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209, 2001 SCC 70; R. v. Skinner, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1235; Syndicat catholique des employés de magasins de Québec Inc. v. Compagnie Paquet Ltée, [1959] S.C.R. 20......
  • Association des Pilotes d’Air Canada c. Kelly,
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • February 3, 2011
    ...v. British Columbia, 2007 SCC 27, [2007] 2 S.C.R. 391, 283 D.L.R. (4th) 40, [2007] 7 W.W.R. 191; R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd., 2001 SCC 70, [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209, 205 D.L.R. (4th) 385, 76 C.L.R.B.R. (2d) 1; Newfoundland (Treasury Board) v. N.A.P.E., 2004 SCC 66, [2004] 3 S.C.R. 381......
  • Mounted Police Association of Ontario et al. v. Canada (Attorney General), 2015 SCC 1
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court (Canada)
    • January 16, 2015
    ...not to associate: Lavigne v. Ontario Public Service Employees Union , [1991] 2 S.C.R. 211; R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd. , 2001 SCC 70, [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209; affirmed in Bernard v. Canada (Attorney General) , 2014 SCC 13, [2014] 1 S.C.R. 227. But, Lavigne and Advance Cutting are si......
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62 cases
  • Health Services and Support - Facilities Subsector Bargaining Association et al. v. British Columbia, [2007] 7 WWR 191
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court (Canada)
    • June 8, 2007
    ...Canadian Egg Marketing Agency v. Pineview Poultry Products Ltd. et al. R. v. Advance Cutting and Coring Ltd. et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209; 276 N.R. 1; 205 D.L.R.(4th) 385; 2001 SCC 70, refd to. [para. Delisle v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., [1999] 2 S.C.R. 989; 244 N.R. 33, refd to. [pa......
  • Air Can. Pilots Assoc. v. Kelly, (2011) 383 F.T.R. 198 (FC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Federal Court (Canada)
    • February 3, 2011
    ...Commission, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 22; 126 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 220]. R. v. Advance Cutting and Coring Ltd. et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209; 276 N.R. 1; 2001 SCC 70, refd to. [para. Newfoundland (Treasury Board) v. Newfoundland Association of Public Employees, [2004] 3 S.C.R. 381; 326 N.R. 25; 242 ......
  • Fraser et al. v. Ontario (Attorney General), 415 NR 200
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court (Canada)
    • December 17, 2009
    ...217 N.S.R.(2d) 301; 683 A.P.R. 301; 2003 SCC 54, refd to. [para. 79]. R. v. Advance Cutting and Coring Ltd. et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209; 276 N.R. 1; 2001 SCC 70, refd to. [paras. 80, 212, R. v. Mannion, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 272; 69 N.R. 189; 75 A.R. 16, refd to. [para. 83]. Davidson v. Slaight C......
  • Fraser et al. v. Ontario (Attorney General), [2011] SCJ No 20 (QL)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court (Canada)
    • December 17, 2009
    ... 2003 SCC 54 , refd to. [para. 79]. 1.0000i n;text-indent:-0.5000in;">R. v. Advance Cutting and Coring Ltd. et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209 ; 276 N.R. 1; 2001 SCC 70 , refd to. [paras. 80, 212, 1.0000i n;text-indent:-0.5000in;">R. v. Mannion, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 272 ; 69 N.R. 189 ; 75 A.R. 1......
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20 books & journal articles
  • Interpreting the Charter with International Law: Pitfalls and Principles
    • Canada
    • Appeal: Review of Current Law and Law Reform Nbr. 19, January 2014
    • January 1, 2014
    ...to the international legal order.” Macklem, “International Constitution”, supra note 26 at 265. 61 R v Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd, 2001 SCC 70, [2001] 3 SCR 209 [Advance Cutting]. 112 n APPEAL VOLUME 19 requiring all employees to be members of a union as a condition of employment was not ......
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Constitutional Law. Fifth Edition Conclusion
    • August 3, 2017
    ...478, 497, 499, 500 R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd, [2001] 3 S.C.R. 209, 2001 SCC 70.......... 454 R. v. Ahmad, [2011] 1 S.C.R. 110, 2011 SCC 6 ................................................... 462 R. v. Appulonappa, [2015] 3 S.C.R. 754, 2015 SCC 59 ..........................................
  • The Constitutionalization of Collective Bargaining Law
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Labour and Employment Law. Cases, Materials, and Commentary. Ninth Edition
    • June 24, 2018
    ...the freedom not to associate: Lavigne v. Ontario Public Service Employees Union, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 211; R. v. Advance Cutting & Coring Ltd., 2001 SCC 70 . . . ; airmed in Bernard v. Canada (Attorney General), 2014 SCC 13 . . . . But, Lavigne and Advance Cutting are signiicant because they app......
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Labour and Employment Law. Cases, Materials, and Commentary. Ninth Edition
    • June 24, 2018
    ...440 ...........................................................................................1066 R v Advance Cutting and Coring Ltd , 2001 SCC 70, [2001] 3 SCR 209 ........................................ 860 R v Canadian Paciic Railway Co (1962), 31 DLR (2d) 209 (Ont HC), af’d ( sub nom......
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