R. v. Asante-Mensah (D.), (1996) 3 O.T.C. 240 (GD)

JudgeHill, J.
CourtOntario Court of Justice General Division (Canada)
Case DateMay 08, 1996
JurisdictionOntario
Citations(1996), 3 O.T.C. 240 (GD)

R. v. Asante-Mensah (D.) (1996), 3 O.T.C. 240 (GD)

MLB headnote and full text

Her Majesty The Queen v. Daniel Asante-Mensah

(2397/92)

Indexed As: R. v. Asante-Mensah (D.)

Ontario Court of Justice

General Division

Central West Region

Hill, J.

May 8, 1996.

Summary:

The accused operated a taxi/limousine service to and from the Toronto Airport. He did not have a permit. He was served with a trespass notice under s. 3 of the Trespass to Property Act. On three occasions the accused was stopped by airport inspectors who attempted to make a citizen's arrest. The accused eluded arrest each time. The accused was charged with three counts of escaping lawful custody, one count of assault with intent to resist arrest, one count of dangerous driving and one count of using a weapon in committing an assault. The accused raised various Constitutional arguments.

The Ontario Court (General Division) convicted the accused on two counts of escaping lawful custody, but acquitted him on the remaining charges.

Aeronautics - Topic 1886

Airports - Operation of - Taxicabs and limousines - See paragraphs 1 to 204.

Civil Rights - Topic 643.1

Liberty - Limitations on - Access to public areas - See paragraphs 115 to 146.

Civil Rights - Topic 646.2

Liberty - Limitations on - Imprisonment for non-payment of fine - See paragraphs 134 to 137.

Civil Rights - Topic 686

Liberty - Principles of fundamental justice - Deprivation of - What constitutes - See paragraphs 138 to 146.

Civil Rights - Topic 783

Liberty - Particular rights - Economic rights - Choice of work - See paragraphs 126 to 129.

Civil Rights - Topic 1262

Security of the person - Lawful arrest - What constitutes - See paragraphs 147 to 185.

Civil Rights - Topic 3603

Detention and imprisonment - Detention - What constitutes arbitrary detention - See paragraphs 147 to 155.

Constitutional Law - Topic 5623

Federal jurisdiction - Federal debt and property - Federal public lands - See paragraphs 110 to 114.

Criminal Law - Topic 533

Offences against the administration of law and justice - Escapes and rescues - Escape from lawful custody - What constitutes - See paragraphs 186 to 203.

Criminal Law - Topic 1414.1

Assaults - Assault with intent to resist arrest - See paragraph 197.

Criminal Law - Topic 3214

Compelling appearance, detention and release - Arrest - Powers of private citizen - See paragraphs 147 to 185.

Words and Phrases

Authorized by law - The Ontario Court (General Division) stated that the words "authorized by law" in s. 25(1) of the Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, did not include a protection or justification in circumstances of an exercise of arrest pursuant to a provincial statute for a non-criminal matter - See paragraph 169.

Cases Noticed:

R. v. Johnson et al., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 65; 174 N.R. 321; 76 O.A.C. 241; 94 C.C.C.(3d) 385, refd to. [para. 6].

R. v. Laba - see R. v. Johnson et al.

R. v. DeSousa, [1992] 2 S.C.R. 944; 142 N.R. 1; 56 O.A.C. 109; 76 C.C.C.(3d) 124; 15 C.R.(4th) 66, refd to. [para. 6].

R. v. Trabulsey (K.) et al. (1995), 80 O.A.C. 43; 97 C.C.C.(3d) 147 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 111].

R. v. Keegstra, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 697; 117 N.R. 1; 114 A.R. 81; 1 C.R.(4th) 129; 77 Alta. L.R.(2d) 193; [1991] 2 W.W.R. 1; 61 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 3 C.R.R.(2d) 193, refd to. [para. 119].

Edmonton Journal v. Alberta (Attorney General), [1989] 2 S.C.R. 1326; 102 N.R. 321; 103 A.R. 321; 64 D.L.R.(4th) 577; [1990] 1 W.W.R. 577; 71 Alta. L.R.(2d) 273; 45 C.R.R. 1, refd to. [para. 119].

Russo v. Ontario Jockey Club (1987), 62 O.R.(2d) 731 (H.C.), refd to. [para. 120].

Committee for the Commonwealth of Canada et al. v. Canada, [1991] 1 S.C.R. 139; 120 N.R. 241, refd to. [para. 122].

Desrosiers v. Thinel, [1962] S.C.R. 515, refd to. [para. 125].

Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur général), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927; 94 N.R. 167; 24 Q.A.C. 2; 58 D.L.R.(4th) 577; 25 C.P.R.(3d) 417, refd to. [para. 127].

Reference Re Sections 193 and 195.1(1)(c) of the Criminal Code, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1123; 109 N.R. 81; 68 Man.R.(2d) 1; 56 C.C.C.(3d) 65; 77 C.R.(3d) 1; [1990] 4 W.W.R. 481, refd to. [para. 127].

R. v. Miles of Music Ltd. (1989), 31 O.A.C. 380; 48 C.C.C.(3d) 96 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 127].

R. v. Quesnel (1985), 12 O.A.C. 165; 53 O.R.(2d) 338 (C.A.), leave to appeal refused [1986] 1 S.C.R. xiii; 68 N.R. 160; 16 O.A.C. 80, refd to. [para. 127].

Peel (Regional Municipality) v. Great Atlantic & Pacific Co. of Canada (1991), 44 O.A.C. 179; 2 O.R.(3d) 65 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 127].

R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al., [1986] 2 S.C.R. 713; 71 N.R. 161; 19 O.A.C. 239; 30 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 55 C.R.(3d) 193; 35 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 28 C.R.R. 1, refd to. [para. 128].

Edwards Books and Art Ltd. v. R. - see R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al.

R. v. Heywood (R.L.), [1994] 3 S.C.R. 761; 174 N.R. 81; 50 B.C.A.C. 161; 82 W.A.C. 161, dist. [para. 130].

New York v. Leonard (1984), 477 N.Y.S.2d 111 (Ct. App.), refd to. [para. 132].

Proulx v. Krukowski (1993), 109 D.L.R.(4th) 606 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 133].

R. v. Beare; R. v. Higgins, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 387; 88 N.R. 205; 71 Sask.R. 1; 45 C.C.C.(3d) 57; [1989] 1 W.W.R. 97; 66 C.R.(3d) 97, refd to. [para. 135].

R. v. Pontes (P.), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 44; 186 N.R. 81; 62 B.C.A.C. 241; 103 W.A.C. 241; 100 C.C.C.(3d) 353, refd to. [para. 135].

R. v. Nickel City Transport (Sudbury) Ltd. (1993), 63 O.A.C. 289; 82 C.C.C.(3d) 541 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 136].

R. v. Lyons, [1987] 2 S.C.R. 309; 80 N.R. 161; 82 N.S.R.(2d) 271; 207 A.P.R. 271; 37 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 61 C.R.(3d) 1; 44 D.L.R.(4th) 193, refd to. [para. 139].

Davidson v. Slaight Communications Inc., [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1038; 93 N.R. 183; 59 D.L.R.(4th) 416; 26 C.C.E.L. 85; 89 C.L.L.C. 14,031; 40 C.R.R. 100, refd to. [para. 143].

R. v. Storrey, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 241; 105 N.R. 81; 37 O.A.C. 161; 53 C.C.C.(3d) 316, refd to. [para. 150].

R. v. Hufsky, [1988] 1 S.C.R. 621; 84 N.R. 365; 27 O.A.C. 103; 40 C.C.C.(3d) 398; 63 C.R.(3d) 14; 4 M.V.R.(2d) 170; 32 C.R.R. 193, refd to. [para. 151].

R. v. Cayer (1988), 28 O.A.C. 105; 66 C.R.(3d) 30 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 152].

R. v. Ladouceur, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1257; 108 N.R. 171; 40 O.A.C. 1; 77 C.R.(3d) 110; 56 C.C.C.(3d) 22; 21 M.V.R.(2d) 165, refd to. [para. 152].

R. v. Hall (O.) (1996), 89 O.A.C. 43 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 153].

R. v. Langer (1974), 18 C.C.C.(2d) 177 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 157].

R. v. Strand (1961), 132 C.C.C. 245 (Sask. Dist. Ct.), refd to. [para. 157].

R. v. Biron, [1976] 2 S.C.R. 56; 4 N.R. 45; 23 C.C.C.(2d) 513, refd to. [para. 157].

R. v. Robertson (1978), 42 C.C.C.(2d) 78 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 158].

R. v. Marshall (1982), 51 N.S.R.(2d) 165; 102 A.P.R. 165; 66 C.C.C.(2d) 499 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 158].

R. v. Delong (1989), 31 O.A.C. 339; 47 C.C.C.(3d) 402 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 160].

R. v. Allen (1971), 4 C.C.C.(2d) 194 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 160].

R. v. Quinlan (1978), 28 Chitty's L.J. 186 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 160].

R. v. Middleton et al., [1969] 4 C.C.C. 197 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 160].

R. v. Hurlen (1959), 123 C.C.C. 54 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 160].

R. v. Stevens (1976), 18 N.S.R.(2d) 96; 20 A.P.R. 96; 33 C.C.C.(2d) 429 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 160].

R. v. Sharma (D.), [1993] 1 S.C.R. 650; 149 N.R. 161; 61 O.A.C. 161; 79 C.C.C.(3d) 142, refd to. [para. 165].

R. v. Roberge, [1983] 1 S.C.R. 312; 46 N.R. 573; 4 C.C.C.(3d) 304, refd to. [para. 165].

Eccles v. Bourque, [1975] 2 S.C.R. 739; 3 N.R. 259, refd to. [para. 165].

Williams v. Laing (1923), 55 O.L.R. 26 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 165].

R. v. Huff (1979), 17 A.R. 499; 50 C.C.C.(2d) 324 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 165].

Dumbell v. Roberts, [1944] 1 All E.R. 326 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 165].

Christie v. Leachinsky, [1947] A.C. 573 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 165].

R. v. Flatten (1960), 127 C.C.C. 81 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 165].

R. v. Self (1992), 95 Cr. App. Rep. 42 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 165].

Walters v. Smith (W.H.) & Son Ltd., [1914] 1 K.B. 595, refd to. [para. 165].

Karogiannis v. Poulus and Eaton (T.) Co., [1976] 6 W.W.R. 197 (B.C.S.C.), refd to. [para. 167].

Banerjee v. K-Mart Canada Ltd. and Little (1983), 43 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 252; 127 A.P.R. 252 (Nfld. Dist. Ct.), refd to. [para. 167].

Kendall and Kendall v. Gambles Canada Ltd., Graham, Bowering and Landru (1981), 11 Sask.R. 361 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 168].

Cronk v. Woolworth (F.W.) Co., MacPherson, Blinkhorn and Williams (1984), 44 Sask.R. 81 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 168].

Hayward v. Woolworth (F.W.) Co. (1979), 23 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 17; 61 A.P.R. 17; 98 D.L.R.(3d) 345 (Nfld. T.D.), refd to. [para. 168].

Banyasz v. K-Mart Canada Ltd. (1986), 18 O.A.C. 227; 57 O.R.(2d) 445 (Div. Ct.), refd to. [para. 168].

Kovacs v. Ontario Jockey Club (1995), 126 D.L.R.(4th) 576 (Ont. Gen. Div.), refd to. [para. 168].

Briggs v. Laviolette (1994), 21 C.C.L.T.(2d) 105 (B.C.S.C.), refd to. [para. 168].

Smart v. Simpsons Sears Ltd. (1987), 64 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 187; 197 A.P.R. 187; 36 D.L.R.(4th) 756 (Nfld. C.A.), refd to. [para. 168].

Sears Canada Inc. v. Smart - see Smart v. Simpsons Sears Ltd.

R. v. Brennan (1990), 36 O.A.C. 218; 52 C.C.C.(3d) 366 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 170].

R. v. Walker (1979), 48 C.C.C.(2d) 126 (Ont. Co. Ct.), refd to. [para. 170].

Interception of Private Communications Reference, [1984] 2 S.C.R. 697; 56 N.R. 43; 58 A.R. 39; 15 C.C.C.(3d) 466, refd to. [para. 172].

Reference Re Application for an Authorization - see Interception of Private Communications Reference.

R. v. Lerke (1986), 67 A.R. 390; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 129 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 174].

Blainey v. Ontario Hockey Association (1986), 14 O.A.C. 194; 54 O.R.(2d) 513 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 174].

McKinney v. University of Guelph et al., [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229; 118 N.R. 1; 45 O.A.C. 1; 76 D.L.R.(4th) 545, refd to. [para. 174].

Dolphin Delivery Ltd. v. Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, Local 580, Peterson and Alexander, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 573; 71 N.R. 83; 33 D.L.R.(4th) 174; [1987] 1 W.W.R. 577; 38 C.C.L.T. 184; 25 C.R.R. 321; 87 C.L.L.C. 14,002, refd to. [para. 174].

R. v. Shafie (1989), 31 O.A.C. 362; 47 C.C.C.(3d) 27 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 174].

Khan v. El Al Israel Airlines (1991), 4 O.R.(3d) 502 (Gen. Div.), refd to. [para. 174].

R. v. Beaudette (1957), 118 C.C.C. 295 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 176].

Kennedy v. Tomlinson (1958), 126 C.C.C. 175 (Ont. C.A.), leave to appeal refused (1959), 20 D.L.R.(2d) 318 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 176].

R. v. Whitfield, [1970] S.C.R. 46; [1970] 1 C.C.C. 129, refd to. [para. 178].

R. v. Silveira (A.), [1995] 2 S.C.R. 297; 181 N.R. 161; 81 O.A.C. 161; 97 C.C.C.(3d) 450, refd to. [para. 180].

R. v. Noble (1984), 6 O.A.C. 11; 16 C.C.C.(3d) 146 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 180].

R. v. Colet (1981), 35 N.R. 227; 57 C.C.C.(2d) 105 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 181].

R. v. Lyons, Prevedoros and McGuire, [1984] 2 S.C.R. 633; 56 N.R. 6; 58 A.R. 2; 15 C.C.C.(3d) 417, refd to. [para. 185].

R. v. Grant (D.), [1993] 3 S.C.R. 223; 159 N.R. 161; 35 B.C.A.C. 1; 57 W.A.C. 1; 84 C.C.C.(3d) 173, refd to. [para. 185].

Statutes Noticed:

Airport Traffic Regulations - see Government Property Traffic Act Regulations (Can.).

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982, sect. 7 [para. 115]; sect. 9 [para. 11]; sect. 10(a) [para. 176]; sect. 10(b) [para. 177].

Constitution Act, 1867, sect. 91, sect. 92 [para. 110].

Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, sect. 25(1) [para. 167]; sect. 41(1) [para. 154]; sect. 145(1)(a) [para. 2]; sect. 249(2), sect. 267(1) [para. 4]; sect. 270(1)(b) [para. 3]; sect. 494, sect. 494(1)(a), sect. 494(2) [para. 148].

Department of Transport Act Regulations (Can.), Government Airport Concession Operations Regulations, SOR/79-373, sect. 4(1)(a) [para. 16]; sect. 7 [para. 15]; sect. 7(a), sect. 7(b) [para. 25]; sect. 8 [para. 15]; sect. 8(1)(a) [para. 16]; sect. 9, sect. 10 [para. 15]; sect. 11 [paras. 15, 29].

GACOR - see Government Airport Concession Operations Regulations.

Government Airport Concession Operations Regulations - see Department of Transport Act Regulations (Can.).

Government Property Traffic Act Regulations (Can.), C.R.C. 1978, c. 886, Airport Traffic Regulations, generally [para. 23].

Interpretation Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. I-11, sect. 28(b) [para. 181].

Municipal Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. M-45, sect. 227(1)(a), sect. 227(1)(b) [para. 15].

Provincial Offences Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. P-33, sect. 69 [para. 137]; sect. 146 [para. 179].

Trespass to Property Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T-21, sect. 2(1) [para. 11]; sect. 3 [para. 8]; sect. 9 [para. 10].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Bartlett Report - see Report of the Pearson International Airport Taxi and Limousine Task Force.

Canada, Law Reform Commission, Arrest, Working Paper No. 41 (1985), p. 46 [para. 167].

Canada, Royal Commission Inquiry into Civil Rights (MacRuer Report) (1969), vol. 2, c. 47, pp. 726 [para. 178]; 728 [para. 168].

Irvine, John, Annotation to Banyasz (1986), 39 C.C.L.T. 266, pp. 266, 267, 268, 269 [para. 168].

MacRuer Report - see Canada, Royal Commission Inquiry into Civil Rights.

Report of Ontario Task Force on Policing in Ontario (1974), p. 36 [para. 182].

Report of the Pearson International Airport Taxi and Limousine Task Force (Bartlett Report)(December 14, 1990), pp. 10, 11 [para. 32]; 40 [para. 20]; 44 [para. 32].

Counsel:

J. Raftery and H. Schwartz, for the Crown;

J. Kappy and D. Schermbrucker, for the accused.

This case was heard in Brampton, Ontario, on October 16, 17, 18 and 19, 1995, February 26, 27, 28 and 29, 1996, and on March 1 and 7, 1996, by Hill, J., of the Ontario Court (General Division), Central West Region, who delivered the following judgment and released the decision on May 8, 1996.

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