R. v. Houben,

JurisdictionSaskatchewan
JudgeLane, Jackson and Richards, JJ.A.
Neutral Citation2006 SKCA 129
CourtCourt of Appeal (Saskatchewan)
Date18 May 2006
Citation(2006), 289 Sask.R. 118 (CA),2006 SKCA 129,[2007] 2 WWR 195,214 CCC (3d) 519,44 CR (6th) 338,AZ-50473646,[2006] SJ No 715 (QL),149 CRR (2d) 244,289 Sask R 118,289 SaskR 118,[2006] S.J. No 715 (QL),289 Sask.R. 118,(2006), 289 SaskR 118 (CA)

R. v. Houben (K.) (2006), 289 Sask.R. 118 (CA);

    382 W.A.C. 118

MLB headnote and full text

Temp. Cite: [2006] Sask.R. TBEd. DE.009

Her Majesty the Queen (appellant) v. Kenneth Lloyd Houben (respondent)

(No. 1016; 2006 SKCA 129)

Indexed As: R. v. Houben (K.)

Saskatchewan Court of Appeal

Lane, Jackson and Richards, JJ.A.

November 17, 2006.

Summary:

The accused was charged with driving while over .08. The accused challenged the admissibility of the certificate of analyses, alleging that he had been arbitrarily detained contrary to s. 9 of the Charter.

The Saskatchewan Provincial Court, in a decision reported at 246 Sask.R. 34, held that the accused had been arbitrarily detained and the certificate evidence should be excluded. The Crown appealed.

The Saskatchewan Court of Queen's Bench, in a decision reported at 263 Sask.R. 97, dismissed the appeal. The Crown appealed.

The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal.

Civil Rights - Topic 3603

Detention and imprisonment - Detention - What constitutes arbitrary detention - Two police officers stopped the accused's vehicle at 2:45 a.m. - In response to one officer's inquiry, the accused admitted having had a few drinks - The officer administered a roadside screening test, then made a breathalyzer demand - The accused was charged with driving while over .08 - The trial judge held that the accused had been arbitrarily detained contrary to s. 9 of the Charter - The accused was doing nothing untoward when detained - The police were not concerned with highway traffic matters when they stopped him - They did not stop him to address any concern for the commission of a particular crime in the area - Their genuine intention in stopping his vehicle was "preventative policing" or "to rule out suspicious behaviour" - A summary conviction appeal judge affirmed the decision - The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal held that the appeal judge did not err in not finding a reviewable error of fact - Further, she correctly determined that there was no basis to interfere with the trial judge's decision that the police action could not be justified on the basis of reasonable grounds to detain - See paragraphs 18 to 46.

Civil Rights - Topic 3603

Detention and imprisonment - Detention - What constitutes arbitrary detention - Section 40(8) of the Highway Traffic Act (HTA) provided that "A peace officer who: (a) is readily identifiable as a peace officer; and (b) is in the lawful execution of his or her duties and responsibilities; may require the person in charge of or operating a motor vehicle to stop that vehicle." - The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal held that while, on its face, s. 40(8) appeared to be a general power to direct a driver to bring a vehicle to a stop, the Supreme Court of Canada had placed limits on a police officer's authority to stop a vehicle - Random stops under s. 40(8) were arbitrary detentions, contrary to s. 9 of the Charter, and were only saved through s. 1 - While the police officer acting under s. 40(8) did need not have "reasonable grounds to detain", the officer's intention had to have been to satisfy the HTA's aims as articulated in such authorities as R. v. Mellenthin (SCC) - While a police officer did not have to say expressly that they were proceeding to exercise the authority under s. 40(8), or testify to this express effect, the trier of fact had to be able to conclude that the officer was checking for "sobriety, licences, ownership, insurance and the mechanical fitness of cars" - Section 40(8) could not be used to create a general power of detention for investigative purposes - See paragraphs 47 to 71.

Civil Rights - Topic 3603

Detention and imprisonment - Detention - What constitutes arbitrary detention - Two police officers stopped the accused's vehicle at 2:45 a.m. - In response to one officer's inquiry, the accused admitted having had a few drinks - The officer administered a roadside screening test, then made a breathalyzer demand - The accused was charged with driving while over .08 - The trial judge found that the accused was doing nothing untoward when detained, the police were not concerned with highway traffic matters when they stopped him and their genuine intention in stopping his vehicle was to rule out suspicious behaviour - She held that the accused had been arbitrarily detained contrary to s. 9 of the Charter and that the certificate evidence should be excluded under s. 24(2) - A summary conviction appeal judge affirmed the decision - The Crown appealed - The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal found no reason to set aside the finding that the evidence should be excluded under s. 24(2) - See paragraphs 72 to 79.

Civil Rights - Topic 8368

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Denial of rights - Remedies - Exclusion of evidence - [See third Civil Rights - Topic 3603 ].

Criminal Law - Topic 4859

Appeals - Indictable offences - Grounds of appeal - Question of fact or question of mixed law and fact - The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal stated that "Unlike an appeal against a conviction, an appellate court does not review an acquittal on the standard of reasonableness. An argument raising the possibility of an unreasonable acquittal raises a question of fact alone (see: Schuldt v. R. and R. v. Paice). While Schuldt and Paice concern indictable offences, the same principle applies with equal, if not greater, strength with respect to summary conviction appeals where the Crown does not have an appeal to a court of appeal as of right with respect to a question of law, but must apply for leave. While the absence of evidence to support a finding of fact is a question of law, the sufficiency of the evidence is a question of fact" - See paragraphs 27 and 28.

Criminal Law - Topic 4975

Appeals - Indictable offences - Powers of Court of Appeal - Appeal from an acquittal - [See Criminal Law - Topic 4859 ].

Police - Topic 3063

Powers - Arrest and detention - Without warrant - Reasonable and probable grounds - [See first Civil Rights - Topic 3603 ].

Police - Topic 3109

Powers - Investigation - Motor vehicles - [See second Civil Rights - Topic 3603 ].

Police - Topic 3204

Powers - Direction - Stopping vehicles - General - [See second Civil Rights - Topic 3603 ].

Police - Topic 3208

Powers - Direction - Random or arbitrary stopping of persons - [See second Civil Rights - Topic 3603 ].

Cases Noticed:

R. v. Ladouceur (M.J.) (2002), 223 Sask.R. 161; 277 W.A.C. 161; 2 C.R.(6th) 68; 165 C.C.C.(3d) 321 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 7].

R. v. Lott (E.C.) (1998), 174 Sask.R. 133 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 7].

R. v. Checkosis (C.V.) (1999), 190 Sask.R. 134; 49 M.V.R.(3d) 303 (Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 7].

R. v. Duncanson (1991), 93 Sask.R. 193; 4 W.A.C. 193; 12 C.R.(4th) 86 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 7].

R. v. Emke (1989), 74 Sask.R. 276 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 7].

R. v. Schaeffer (D.B.) (2003), 244 Sask.R. 197 (Q.B.), affd. (2005), 257 Sask.R. 219; 342 W.A.C. 219; 2005 SKCA 33, consd. [para. 8].

R. v. Mann (P.H.), [2004] 3 S.C.R. 59; 324 N.R. 215; 187 Man.R.(2d) 1; 330 W.A.C. 1; 21 C.R.(6th) 1; 2004 SCC 52, consd. [para. 11].

R. v. Schuldt, [1985] 2 S.C.R. 592; 63 N.R. 241; 38 Man.R.(2d) 257, refd to. [para. 27].

R. v. Paice (C.D.J.), [2005] 1 S.C.R. 339; 332 N.R. 159; 262 Sask.R. 171; 347 W.A.C. 171, refd to. [para. 27].

R. v. Simpson (R.) (1993), 60 O.A.C. 327; 12 O.R.(3d) 182; 43 M.V.R.(2d) 1; 14 C.R.R.(2d) 338; 20 C.R.(4th) 1 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 31].

R. v. Ladouceur, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1257; 108 N.R. 171; 40 O.A.C. 1; 77 C.R.(3d) 110, refd to. [para. 33].

R. v. Wilson, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1291; 108 N.R. 207; 107 A.R. 321; 56 C.C.C.(3d) 142; 77 C.R.(3d) 137, consd. [para. 33].

R. v. Waterfield, [1963] 3 All E.R. 659; [1964] 1 Q.B. 164 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 37].

R. v. Dedman, [1985] 2 S.C.R. 2; 60 N.R. 34; 11 O.A.C. 241, refd to. [para. 37].

R. v. Murray (1999), 136 C.C.C.(3d) 197 (Que. C.A.), refd to. [para. 40].

R. v. Hufsky, [1988] 1 S.C.R. 621; 84 N.R. 365; 27 O.A.C. 103, refd to. [para. 48].

R. v. Duncanson, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 836; 135 N.R. 117; 97 Sask.R. 96; 12 W.A.C. 96; 12 C.R.(4th) 98, refd to. [para. 48].

R. v. Mellenthin, [1992] 3 S.C.R. 615; 144 N.R. 50; 135 A.R. 1; 33 W.A.C. 1, appld. [para. 48].

R. v. Orbanski (C.); R. v. Elias (D.J.), [2005] 2 S.C.R. 3; 335 N.R. 342; 195 Man.R.(2d) 161; 351 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 48].

R. v. Chaisson (D.), [2006] 1 S.C.R. 415; 347 N.R. 282; 256 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 181; 773 A.P.R. 181, refd to. [para. 48].

Brown et al. v. Durham Regional Police Force (1998), 116 O.A.C. 126 (C.A.), consd. [para. 48].

R. v. Schell (A.J.) (2006) 289 Sask.R. 138; 382 W.A.C. 138 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 71].

R. v. Collins, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 265; 74 N.R. 276, refd to. [para. 72].

Statutes Noticed:

Highway Traffic Act, S.S. 1986, c. H-3.1, sect. 40(8) [para. 47].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Sopinka, John, and Gelowitz, Mark A., The Conduct of an Appeal (1993), generally [para. 26].

Counsel:

Anthony B. Gerein, for the Crown;

Mark R. Vanstone, for the respondent.

This appeal was heard on May 18, 2006, by Lane, Jackson and Richards, JJ.A., of the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal. Jackson, J.A., delivered the following decision for the court on November 17, 2006.

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106 practice notes
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    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • 22 d4 Junho d4 2017
    ...R v Horton, [2002] OJ No 1219 (SCJ) ................................................................. 204 R v Houben, 2006 SKCA 129 ............................................. 78, 96, 97, 127, 128, 376 R v Howarth (1828), 168 ER 1243 .............................................................
  • Nature of the Interaction Between Police and Individuals
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    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • 22 d4 Junho d4 2017
    ...what racial profiling means. In its factum, the appellant defined it compendiously: “Racial profiling involves the 290 See R v Houben , 2006 SKCA 129 [ Houben ], which continues to be relied upon post- Nolet : see for example R v McCammon , 2013 MBCA 68 or R v Papilion , 2014 SKCA 45. 291 S......
  • Powers of Detention
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    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • 22 d4 Junho d4 2017
    ...ones. But the basis of the distinction is not clear. It appears the Saskatchewan Court is of the view that the above 48 R v Houben , 2006 SKCA 129. Houben continues to be relied upon: see, for example, R v McCammon, 2013 MBCA 68; R v Papilion , 2014 SKCA 45; or R v Koma , 2015 SKCA 92. 49 R......
  • R. v. Koma (R.M.), 2015 SKCA 92
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    • Saskatchewan Court of Appeal (Saskatchewan)
    • 8 d1 Dezembro d1 2014
    ...241, refd to. [para. 78]. R. v. Ladouceur, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1257; 108 N.R. 171; 40 O.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 78]. R. v. Houben (K.), [2007] 2 W.W.R. 195; 289 Sask.R. 118; 382 W.A.C. 118; 2006 SKCA 129, refd to. [para. R. v. Mellenthin, [1992] 3 S.C.R. 615; 144 N.R. 50; 135 A.R. 1; 33 W.A.C. ......
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61 cases
  • R. v. Koma (R.M.), 2015 SKCA 92
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    • Saskatchewan Court of Appeal (Saskatchewan)
    • 8 d1 Dezembro d1 2014
    ...241, refd to. [para. 78]. R. v. Ladouceur, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1257; 108 N.R. 171; 40 O.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 78]. R. v. Houben (K.), [2007] 2 W.W.R. 195; 289 Sask.R. 118; 382 W.A.C. 118; 2006 SKCA 129, refd to. [para. R. v. Mellenthin, [1992] 3 S.C.R. 615; 144 N.R. 50; 135 A.R. 1; 33 W.A.C. ......
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    ...SCC 33, refd to. [para. 31]. R. v. Therens, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 613; 59 N.R. 122; 40 Sask.R. 122, refd to. [para. 31]. R. v. Houben (K.) (2006), 289 Sask.R. 118; 382 W.A.C. 118; 2006 SKCA 129, refd to. [para. R. v. Schaeffer (D.B.) (2005), 257 Sask.R. 219; 342 W.A.C. 219; 2005 SKCA 33, refd to.......
  • R. v. Anderson (J.), 2011 SKPC 1
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    ...O.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 16]. R. v. Hufsky, [1988] 1 S.C.R. 621; 84 N.R. 365; 27 O.A.C. 103, refd to. [para. 16]. R. v. Houben (K.) (2006), 289 Sask.R. 118; 382 W.A.C. 118; 2006 SKCA 129, refd to. [para. 16]. R. v. Schrenk (C.A.) (2010), 255 Man.R.(2d) 12; 486 W.A.C. 12; 2010 MBCA 38, refd......
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    • 18 d1 Setembro d1 2006
    ...R. v. Paice (C.D.J.), [2005] 1 S.C.R. 339; 332 N.R. 159; 262 Sask.R. 171; 347 W.A.C. 171, refd to. [para. 67]. R. v. Houben (K.) (2006), 289 Sask.R. 118; 382 W.A.C. 118; 2006 SKCA 129, refd to. [para. R. v. Vézeau, [1977] 2 S.C.R. 277; 8 N.R. 235, refd to. [para. 68]. R. v. Graveline (R.) (......
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43 books & journal articles
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • 22 d4 Junho d4 2017
    ...R v Horton, [2002] OJ No 1219 (SCJ) ................................................................. 204 R v Houben, 2006 SKCA 129 ............................................. 78, 96, 97, 127, 128, 376 R v Howarth (1828), 168 ER 1243 .............................................................
  • Nature of the Interaction Between Police and Individuals
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • 22 d4 Junho d4 2017
    ...what racial profiling means. In its factum, the appellant defined it compendiously: “Racial profiling involves the 290 See R v Houben , 2006 SKCA 129 [ Houben ], which continues to be relied upon post- Nolet : see for example R v McCammon , 2013 MBCA 68 or R v Papilion , 2014 SKCA 45. 291 S......
  • Powers of Detention
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • 22 d4 Junho d4 2017
    ...ones. But the basis of the distinction is not clear. It appears the Saskatchewan Court is of the view that the above 48 R v Houben , 2006 SKCA 129. Houben continues to be relied upon: see, for example, R v McCammon, 2013 MBCA 68; R v Papilion , 2014 SKCA 45; or R v Koma , 2015 SKCA 92. 49 R......
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