R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.), 2004 NSCA 10

JudgeSaunders, Chipman and Fichaud, JJ.A.
CourtCourt of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
Case DateJanuary 27, 2004
JurisdictionNova Scotia
Citations2004 NSCA 10;(2004), 221 N.S.R.(2d) 51 (CA)

R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.) (2004), 221 N.S.R.(2d) 51 (CA);

 697 A.P.R. 51

MLB headnote and full text

Temp. Cite: [2004] N.S.R.(2d) TBEd. FE.030

Her Majesty The Queen (appellant) v. Nicole Marie MacKenzie (respondent)

(CAC 200903; 2004 NSCA 10)

Indexed As: R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.)

Nova Scotia Court of Appeal

Saunders, Chipman and Fichaud, JJ.A.

January 27, 2004.

Summary:

An accused charged with speeding appeared unrepresented for trial in Provincial Court. The Provincial Court judge did not comply with his mandatory duty under s. 530(3) of the Criminal Code to notify an unrepresented accused of the right to apply for a trial in French. The accused was subsequently found guilty and was fined. The accused appealed, alleging that the noncompliance with s. 530(3) violated ss. 15, 16 and 19 of the Charter.

The Nova Scotia Supreme Court, in a judgment not reported in this series of reports, allowed the appeal and held that the "serious Charter breach" warranted a stay of proceedings rather than a new trial. The Crown appealed.

The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal allowed the appeal, set aside the stay and ordered a new trial. A breach of s. 530(3) did not infringe ss. 15, 16 or 19 of the Charter. Although the court, apart from s. 24(1) of the Charter, had an inherent and residual discretion to stay proceedings for abuse of process, a stay was not an option where there was no abuse of process. Even if there had been abuse of process or a Charter breach, a stay would not have been an appropriate and just remedy.

Civil Rights - Topic 2707

Language - General principles - Institutions of Parliament and government of Canada - Section 16(1) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms provided for equality of status and an equal right and privilege to use French or English in "all institutions of the Parliament and government of Canada" - A Provincial Court judge breached the mandatory duty under s. 530(3) of the Criminal Code to notify an unrepresented accused of the right to be tried in French or English - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal held that a breach of s. 530(3) could not constitute a breach of s. 16(1), because a Provincial Court was neither an institution of Parliament nor an institution of government or the executive - See paragraphs 40 to 49.

Civil Rights - Topic 2708

Language - General principles - Court established by Parliament - Section 19 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms provided that either official language could be used in "any court established by Parliament" - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal held that a Provincial Court was not "established by Parliament" - Accordingly, a Provincial Court judge's failure to comply with the mandatory duty to advise an unrepresented accused of the right to trial in either official language (Criminal Code, s. 530(3)) could not constitute a breach of s. 19 of the Charter - See paragraphs 35 to 39.

Civil Rights - Topic 2710

Language - General principles - Section 16(3) of Charter (incl. interpretation and effect of) - Section 16(3) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms provided that nothing limited the authority of Parliament or a Legislature to advance the equality of status or use of French and English - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal held that s. 16(3) rendered intra vires legislation of Parliament or a provincial Legislature which advanced equality of language rights - It did not constitutionally entrench such legislation or incorporate it into the Charter - Accordingly, s. 16(3) did not constitutionalize s. 530(3) of the Criminal Code, which required a Provincial Court judge to notify an unrepresented accused, on first appearance, of the right to trial in either official language - See paragraphs 50 to 57.

Civil Rights - Topic 2943

Language - Criminal proceedings - Active offer of choice of language - Section 530(3) of the Criminal Code required that when an unrepresented accused appeared for the first time before a Provincial Court judge, the judge "shall" inform the accused of the right to apply for a trial in either official language - An accused appearing unrepresented on a charge of speeding was not so advised - The summary conviction appeal court held the breach of s. 530(3) was a serious Charter breach warranting a stay of proceedings rather than a new trial - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal set aside the stay and ordered a new trial - Section 530(3), which was triggered as soon as an accused appeared unrepresented, was clearly breached - However, a breach of s. 530(3) did not violate ss. 15, 16 or 19 of the Charter - Accordingly, a stay of proceedings under s. 24(1) of the Charter was unavailable - Although the court, apart from s. 24(1) of the Charter, had an inherent and residual discretion to stay proceedings for abuse of process, a stay was not an option where there was no abuse of process - Alternatively, had there been abuse of process or a Charter breach, a stay would not have been an appropriate and just remedy.

Civil Rights - Topic 2944

Language - Criminal proceedings - Advice to accused of statutory rights - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2943 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 5660.3

Equality and protection of the law - Particular cases - Language rights - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal stated that "language" was not an analogous ground of discrimination under s. 15(1) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, because ss. 16 to 23 of the Charter dealt specifically with language rights - If language was intended to be covered by s. 15(1), the protections of ss. 16 to 23 would have little meaning - See paragraphs 31 to 33.

Civil Rights - Topic 8374

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Denial of rights - Remedies - Stay of proceedings - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2943 ].

Courts - Topic 2013

Jurisdiction - Criminal cases - Stay of proceedings - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2943 ].

Criminal Law - Topic 253

General principles - Abuse of process - What constitutes - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2943 ].

Criminal Law - Topic 4486

Procedure - Trial - Stay of proceedings - [See Civil Rights - Topic 2943 ].

Cases Noticed:

R. v. Regan (G.A.), [2002] 1 S.C.R. 297; 282 N.R. 1; 201 N.S.R.(2d) 63; 629 A.P.R. 63, refd to. [para. 4].

R. v. Beaulac (J.V.), [1999] 1 S.C.R. 768; 238 N.R. 131; 121 B.C.A.C. 227; 198 W.A.C. 227, refd to. [para. 13].

R. v. Deveaux (G.) (1999), 181 N.S.R.(2d) 81; 560 A.P.R. 81 (S.C.), disagreed with [para. 19].

Reference Re Secession of Quebec, [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217; 228 N.R. 203, refd to. [para. 25].

Law v. Minister of Employment and Immigration, [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497; 236 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 27].

M. v. H., [1999] 2 S.C.R. 3; 238 N.R. 179; 121 O.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 29].

Granovsky v. Minister of Employment and Immigration, [2000] 1 S.C.R. 703; 253 N.R. 329, refd to. [para. 29].

Lovelace v. Ontario - see Ardoch Algonquin First Nation and Allies et al. v. Ontario et al.

Ardoch Algonquin First Nation and Allies et al. v. Ontario et al., [2000] 1 S.C.R. 950; 255 N.R. 1; 134 O.A.C. 201, refd to. [para. 29].

Workers' Compensation Board (N.S.) v. Martin et al. (2003), 310 N.R. 22; 217 N.S.R.(2d) 301; 683 A.P.R. 301 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 29].

Egan and Nesbit v. Canada, [1995] 2 S.C.R. 513; 182 N.R. 161, refd to. [para. 31].

Lalonde et al. v. Commission de restructuration des services de santé (Ont.) (2001), 153 O.A.C. 1; 208 D.L.R.(4th) 577 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 33].

MacDonnell v. Federation de Franco-Columbiens (1986), 31 D.L.R.(4th) 296 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 33].

R. v. Paquette (No. 2) (1987), 83 A.R. 41 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 33].

Ringuette v. Canada (Attorney General) and Newfoundland (Attorney General) (1987), 63 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 126; 194 A.P.R. 126 (Nfld. C.A.), refd to. [para. 33].

R. v. Simard (H.) (1995), 87 O.A.C. 114; 27 O.R.(3d) 116 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 33].

R. v. Crete (R.R.) (1993), 64 O.A.C. 399 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 33].

Seaway Trust v. Kilderkin Investments Ltd. (1986), 29 D.L.R.(4th) 456 (Ont. H.C.), refd to. [para. 33].

R. v. Rodrique (J.J.) (1994), 91 C.C.C.(3d) 455 (Yuk. S.C.), affd. (1995), 53 B.C.A.C. 275; 87 W.A.C. 275; 95 C.C.C.(3d) 129 (Yuk. C.A.), leave to appeal refused [1995] 3 S.C.R. vii; 193 N.R. 318; 68 B.C.A.C. 240; 112 W.A.C. 240, refd to. [para. 33].

Jones v. New Brunswick (Attorney General) - see Official Languages Act, Re.

Official Languages Act, Re, [1975] 2 S.C.R. 182; 1 N.R. 582; 7 N.B.R.(2d) 526, refd to. [para. 36].

Blaikie v. Quebec (Attorney General) et al., [1979] 2 S.C.R. 1016; 30 N.R. 225, refd to. [para. 36].

Société des Acadien du Nouveau-Brunswick Inc. and Association de conseillers scolaires francophones du Nouveau-Brunswick v. Minority Language School Board No. 50 and Association of Parents for Fairness in Education, Grand Falls District 50 Branch, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 549; 66 N.R. 173; 69 N.B.R.(2d) 271; 177 A.P.R. 271, refd to. [para. 36].

Reference Re Remuneration of Judges of the Provincial Court (P.E.I.), [1997] 3 S.C.R. 3; 217 N.R. 1; 206 A.R. 1; 156 W.A.C. 1; 121 Man.R.(2d) 1; 158 W.A.C. 1; 156 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1; 483 A.P.R. 1, refd to. [para. 44].

Charlebois v. Moncton (City) (2001), 242 N.B.R.(2d) 259; 628 A.P.R. 259 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 46].

R. v. Jewitt, [1985] 2 S.C.R. 128; 61 N.R. 159, refd to. [para. 70].

R. v. Conway, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1659; 96 N.R. 241; 34 O.A.C. 165, refd to. [para. 71].

R. v. Power (E.), [1994] 1 S.C.R. 601; 165 N.R. 241; 117 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 269; 365 A.P.R. 269, refd to. [para. 72].

R. v. O'Connor (H.P.), [1995] 4 S.C.R. 411; 191 N.R. 1; 68 B.C.A.C. 1; 112 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 74].

R. v. Bramwell (H.L.), [1996] 3 S.C.R. 1126; 204 N.R. 373; 83 B.C.A.C. 81; 136 W.A.C. 81, affing. (1996), 72 B.C.A.C. 125; 119 W.A.C. 125; 106 C.C.C.(3d) 365 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 74].

R. v. Carosella (N.), [1997] 1 S.C.R. 80; 207 N.R. 321; 98 O.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 74].

R. v. Regan (G.A.), [2002] 1 S.C.R. 297; 282 N.R. 1; 201 N.S.R.(2d) 63; 629 A.P.R. 63, refd to. [para. 74].

United States of America v. Cobb et al., [2001] 1 S.C.R. 587; 267 N.R. 203; 145 O.A.C. 3, refd to. [para. 77].

Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) v. Tobiass et al., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 391; 218 N.R. 81, refd to. [para. 84].

R. v. Gagné (Y.) (1998), 131 C.C.C.(3d) 444 (Que. C.A.), leave to appeal refused (1999), 239 N.R. 398 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 86].

Statutes Noticed

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982, sect. 16(1), sect. 16(2) [para. 40]; sect. 16(3) [para. 50]; sect. 19 [para. 35].

Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, sect. 530 [para. 6].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Hogg, Peter W., Constitutional Law of Canada (Looseleaf), vol. 2, paras. 53.5(A) [para. 37]; 53.6(A) [para. 53].

Counsel:

William Delaney, for the appellant;

Réjean Aucoin, for the respondent.

This appeal was heard on December 2, 2003, at Halifax, N.S., before Saunders, Chipman and Fichaud, JJ.A., of the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal.

On January 27, 2004, Fichaud, J.A., delivered the following judgment for the Court of Appeal.

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17 practice notes
  • R. v. Schneider (A.M.) et al., 2004 NSCA 99
    • Canada
    • Nova Scotia Court of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • August 17, 2004
    ...a difficult accused's improper and disrespectful conduct - See paragraphs 50 to 71. Cases Noticed: R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.) (2004), 221 N.S.R.(2d) 51; 697 A.P.R. 51; 2004 NSCA 10, refd to. [para. 11]. R. v. Beaulac (J.V.), [1999] 1 S.C.R. 768; 238 N.R. 131; 121 B.C.A.C. 227; 198 W.A.C. 227, r......
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    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Quasi-constitutional Laws of Canada
    • June 25, 2018
    ...R v Losier, 2010 NBPC 24 ..................................................................................74 R v MacKenzie, 2004 NSCA 10 ............................................................................9 R v McGraw, 2012 NBQB 358 .......................................................
  • Introduction
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Quasi-constitutional Laws of Canada
    • June 25, 2018
    ...In reaching this conclusion, the Federal Court in this case relied on R v Beaulac , [1999] 1 SCR 768 [ Beaulac ]. See also R v MacKenzie , 2004 NSCA 10 at para 58. 10 Quasi-constitutional Laws of Canada of decisions that held that language rights should be interpreted with “restraint” becau......
  • Draconian but not despotic: the 'unwritten' limits of parliamentary sovereignty in Canada.
    • Canada
    • Ottawa Law Review Vol. 41 No. 2, March 2010
    • March 22, 2010
    ...and services. Constitutional principles do not apply where there is no clear gap in the constitutional text); R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.), 2004 NSCA 10, 221 N.S.R. (2d) 51, 181 C.C.C. (3d) 485 (the principle of protection of minorities cannot be used by itself to invalidate legislation and does ......
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15 cases
  • R. v. Schneider (A.M.) et al., 2004 NSCA 99
    • Canada
    • Nova Scotia Court of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • August 17, 2004
    ...a difficult accused's improper and disrespectful conduct - See paragraphs 50 to 71. Cases Noticed: R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.) (2004), 221 N.S.R.(2d) 51; 697 A.P.R. 51; 2004 NSCA 10, refd to. [para. 11]. R. v. Beaulac (J.V.), [1999] 1 S.C.R. 768; 238 N.R. 131; 121 B.C.A.C. 227; 198 W.A.C. 227, r......
  • R. v. Tayo Tompouba,
    • Canada
    • Supreme Court (Canada)
    • May 3, 2024
    ...212; Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britannique v. British Columbia, 2013 SCC 42, [2013] 2 S.C.R. 774; R. v. MacKenzie, 2004 NSCA 10, 181 C.C.C. (3d) 485; Dhingra v. R., 2021 QCCA 1681, 408 C.C.C. (3d) 466; R. v. Munkonda, 2015 ONCA 309, 126 O.R. (3d) 646; R. v. Deveaux (1999),......
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    • Supreme Court (Canada)
    • May 3, 2024
    ...212; Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britannique v. British Columbia, 2013 SCC 42, [2013] 2 S.C.R. 774; R. v. MacKenzie, 2004 NSCA 10, 181 C.C.C. (3d) 485; Dhingra v. R., 2021 QCCA 1681, 408 C.C.C. (3d) 466; R. v. Munkonda, 2015 ONCA 309, 126 O.R. (3d) 646; R. v. Deveaux (1999),......
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    ...references to SCR]). That is why language cannot be an analogous ground, as several courts of appeal have confirmed (see R v. Mackenzie, 2004 NSCA 10, at paragraph 33 [Mackenzie]). The scope of language rights cannot be broadened through subsection 15(1) (see Mahe; Reference re Public Schoo......
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4 books & journal articles
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Quasi-constitutional Laws of Canada
    • June 25, 2018
    ...R v Losier, 2010 NBPC 24 ..................................................................................74 R v MacKenzie, 2004 NSCA 10 ............................................................................9 R v McGraw, 2012 NBQB 358 .......................................................
  • Introduction
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Quasi-constitutional Laws of Canada
    • June 25, 2018
    ...In reaching this conclusion, the Federal Court in this case relied on R v Beaulac , [1999] 1 SCR 768 [ Beaulac ]. See also R v MacKenzie , 2004 NSCA 10 at para 58. 10 Quasi-constitutional Laws of Canada of decisions that held that language rights should be interpreted with “restraint” becau......
  • Draconian but not despotic: the 'unwritten' limits of parliamentary sovereignty in Canada.
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    • Ottawa Law Review Vol. 41 No. 2, March 2010
    • March 22, 2010
    ...and services. Constitutional principles do not apply where there is no clear gap in the constitutional text); R. v. MacKenzie (N.M.), 2004 NSCA 10, 221 N.S.R. (2d) 51, 181 C.C.C. (3d) 485 (the principle of protection of minorities cannot be used by itself to invalidate legislation and does ......
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