Remembering the Caroline

AuthorCraig Forcese
Chapter 26
Remembering the Caroline
Meme, n. A cultural element or behavioural trait whose transmission
and conseent persience in a population, although occurring by
non-genetic means (esp. imitation), is considered as analogous to the
inheritance of a gene.
— oxford enGlish diCtionary
A   of the Second World War, the allies constituted
the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg to
try Nazi accused. Among the crimes for which the Tribunal
had jurisdiction were crimes against peace, including the “planning,
preparation, initiation or waging of a war of aggression or a war in
violation of international treaties, agreements, or assurances.1 As
prosecutors soon argued, this crime was built, most notably, on the
Kellogg-Briand Pact.2 Charged with violating these rules, the Nazi
leadership was prosecuted for, among other things, its occupations
of European countries. These included the 1940 invasion of Norway,
which foreclosed a northern f‌lanking move by the Allies and was
later used as a springboard for the German attack on Russia.3
A relatively minor event on the vast canvas of the Second World
War, the Norwegian operation served as a conduit for the f‌irst thor-
ough post-war treatment of the self-defence concept. In their Nurem-
berg trials, the Nazi defendants argued Germany was compelled to
attack Norway to pre-empt an Allied occupation of the country; thus,
it was a preventive operation. Moreover, it was for Germany alone to
decide whether its conduct met the standards of the Kellogg-Briand

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