RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), (1995) 187 N.R. 1 (SCC)

JudgeCory, McLachlin, Iacobucci and Major, JJ.
CourtSupreme Court (Canada)
Case DateSeptember 21, 1995
JurisdictionCanada (Federal)
Citations(1995), 187 N.R. 1 (SCC);31 CRR (2d) 189;[1995] FCJ No 68 (QL);187 NR 1;1995 CanLII 64 (SCC);62 CPR (3d) 417;[1995] ACS no 68;JE 95-1766;127 DLR (4th) 1;[1995] 3 SCR 199;[1995] SCJ No 68 (QL);100 CCC (3d) 449;28 WCB (2d) 216;57 ACWS (3d) 578

RJR-MacDonald Inc. v. Can. (P.g.) (1995), 187 N.R. 1 (SCC)

MLB headnote and full text

[French language version follows English language version]

[La version française vient à la suite de la version anglaise]

....................

RJR-MacDonald Inc. (appellant) v. Attorney General of Canada (respondent)

and

Imperial Tobacco Ltd. (appellant) v. Attorney General of Canada (respondent)

and

Attorney General of Quebec (mis en cause)

and

Attorney General for Ontario, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Cancer Society, Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, Canadian Medical Association and Canadian Lung Association (interveners)

(23460; 23490)

Indexed As: RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général)

Supreme Court of Canada

Lamer, C.J.C., La Forest,

L'Heureux-Dubé, Sopinka, Gonthier,

Cory, McLachlin, Iacobucci and Major, JJ.

September 21, 1995.

Summary:

The Tobacco Products Control Act (the Act) enacted, save a few exceptions, a total ban on tobacco products advertising (s. 4). The Act also prohibited the sale of tobacco products unless their packaging displayed an unattributed warning on their health effects and listed their toxic constituents (s. 9). The Act also regulated the public display of tobacco products (s. 5) and the display of brands and manufacturers' names at cultural and sporting events (s. 6). The Act pro­hibited the free distribution of tobacco prod­ucts (s. 7) and the display of trademarks on non-tobacco products (s. 8). RJR-MacDon­ald Inc. moved for a declaratory judgment to have the Act declared ultra vires the federal Parliament and contrary to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Imperial Tobacco Ltd. joined in the motion but only sought the unconstitutionality of ss. 4, 5, 6 and 8.

The Quebec Superior Court (Chabot, J.), in a judgment reported, [1991] R.J.Q. 2260; 82 D.L.R.(4th) 449; 37 C.P.R.(3d) 193, allowed the motion. The Attorney General of Canada appealed.

The Quebec Court of Appeal, Brossard, J.A., dissenting in part, in a judgment reported, [1993] R.J.Q. 375; 53 Q.A.C. 79; 102 D.L.R.(4th) 289; 48 C.P.R.(3d) 417, allowed the appeal. RJR-MacDonald Inc. and Imperial Tobacco Ltd. appealed.

The Supreme Court of Canada, La Forest, L'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier and Cory, JJ., dissenting, allowed the appeal. The court declared the Act validly enacted by the federal Parliament pursuant to its jurisdiction over criminal law. The court struck down ss. 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 because they violated s. 2(b) of the Charter (freedom of expression) and were not a demonstrably justified reasonable limit prescribed by law according to s. 1.

Civil Rights - Topic 1847

Freedom of speech or expression - Limi­tations on - Regulation of advertising and commercial use of language - The Tobacco Products Control Act (the Act) enacted, save a few exceptions, a total ban on tobacco products advertising (s. 4) - The Act also prohibited the sale of tobacco products unless their packaging displayed an unattributed warning on their health effects and listed their toxic constituents (s. 9) - The Act also regulated the public display of tobacco products (s. 5) and the display of brands and manufacturers' names at cultural and sporting events (s. 6) - The Act prohibited the free distribution of tobacco products (s. 7) and the display of trademarks on non-tobacco products (s. 8) - The Supreme Court of Canada declared ss. 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 invalid because they violated s. 2(b) of the Charter (freedom of expression) and were not a demonstrably justified reasonable limit prescribed by law according to s. 1 - See paragraphs 1 to 98.

Civil Rights - Topic 8348

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Application - Exceptions - Reasonable limits prescribed by law (s. 1) - The Supreme Court of Canada restated the justification test under s. 1: (1) sufficiently important legislative objective, and (2) proportionality between the legislative objective and the means chosen to achieve it - The court discussed the application of this test given the context surrounding the legislation considered, deference to Parlia­ment, standard of proof and the trial judge's findings - The court stated, inter alia, that "the civil standard of proof on a bal­ance of probabilities at all stages of the proportionality analysis is more appropri­ate" and that more deference may be required to purely factual findings by the trial judge and less deference when the judge has considered social science and other policy oriented evidence - See para­graphs 5 to 21, 86, 88 to 90, 155 to 178.

Civil Rights - Topic 8348

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Application - Exceptions - Reasonable limits prescribed by law (s. 1) - [See Civil Rights - Topic 1847 ].

Constitutional Law - Topic 25

Raising constitutional issues - Proof required, legislative facts versus adjudicative facts - [See first Civil Rights - Topic 8348 ].

Constitutional Law - Topic 6505

Federal jurisdiction - Criminal law, re­specting particular matters - Health - The Tobacco Products Control Act (the Act) enacted, save a few exceptions, a total ban on tobacco products advertising (s. 4) - The Act also prohibited the sale of tobacco products unless their packaging displayed an unattributed warning on their health effects and listed their toxic constituents (s. 9) - The Act also regulated the public display of tobacco products (s. 5) and the display of brands and manufacturers' names at cultural and sporting events (s. 6) - The Act prohibited the free distribution of tobacco products (s. 7) and the display of trademarks on non-tobacco products (s. 8) - The Supreme Court of Canada declared that the Act was valid federal legislation pursuant to Parliament's juris­diction over criminal law - See paragraphs 2, 86, 98, 125 to 154, 217.

Cases Noticed:

Chaussure Brown's Inc. et al. v. Québec (Procureur général), [1988] 2 S.C.R. 712; 90 N.R. 84; 19 Q.A.C. 69, refd to. [para. 3].

Ford v. Québec (Procureur général) - see Chaussure Brown's Inc. et al. v. Québec (Procureur général).

Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur gé­néral), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927; 94 N.R. 167; 24 Q.A.C. 2; 58 D.L.R.(4th) 577; 25 C.P.R.(3d) 417, refd to. [para. 3].

Royal College of Dental Surgeons (Ont.) et al. v. Rocket and Price, [1990] 2 S.C.R. 232; 111 N.R. 161; 40 O.A.C. 241, refd to. [para. 3].

Da­vidson v. Slaight Communi­cations Inc., [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1038; 93 N.R. 183; 59 D.L.R.(4th) 416; 26 C.C.E.L. 85; 89 C.L.L.C. 14,031; 40 C.R.R. 100, consd. [para. 3].

R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 200; 50 C.R.(3d) 1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308, refd to. [para. 5].

Edmonton Journal v. Alberta (Attorney General), [1989] 2 S.C.R. 1326; 102 N.R. 321; 103 A.R. 321; 64 D.L.R.(4th) 577, refd to. [para. 11].

Stoffman et al. v. Vancouver General Hos­pital et al., [1990] 3 S.C.R. 483; 118 N.R. 241, refd to. [para. 14].

Committee for the Commonwealth of Canada et al. v. Canada, [1991] 1 S.C.R. 139; 120 N.R. 241, consd. [para. 14].

Snell v. Farrell, [1990] 2 S.C.R. 311; 110 N.R. 200; 107 N.B.R.(2d) 94; 267 A.P.R. 94; 72 D.L.R.(4th) 289; 4 C.C.L.T.(2d) 229, refd to. [para. 16].

R. v. Keegs­tra, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 697; 117 N.R. 1; 114 A.R. 81, refd to. [para. 33].

R. v. Butler and McCord, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 452; 134 N.R. 81; 78 Man.R.(2d) 1; 16 W.A.C. 1, consd. [para. 33].

Reference Re Sections 193 and 195.1(1)(c) of the Criminal Code, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1123; 109 N.R. 81; 68 Man.R.(2d) 1; [1990] 4 W.W.R. 481, refd to. [para. 39].

R. v. Chaulk and Morrissette, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1303; 119 N.R. 161; 69 Man.R.(2d) 161, refd to. [para. 39].

Ramsden v. Peterborough (City), [1993] 2 S.C.R. 1084; 156 N.R. 2; 66 O.A.C. 10, refd to. [para. 39].

R. v. Morgentaler, [1993] 3 S.C.R. 463; 157 N.R. 97; 125 N.S.R.(2d) 81; 349 A.P.R. 81, refd to. [para. 61].

Labatt Breweries of Canada Ltd. v. Canada (Attorney General) and Quebec (Attor­ney General), [1980] 1 S.C.R. 914; 30 N.R. 496, refd to. [para. 62].

Knox Contracting Ltd. and Knox v. Cana­da and Minister of National Revenue et al., [1990] 2 S.C.R. 338; 110 N.R. 171; 106 N.B.R.(2d) 408; 265 A.P.R. 408, consd. [para. 62].

Reference Re Validity of Section 5(a) of the Dairy Industry Act (Margarine Case), [1949] S.C.R. 1; [1949] 1 D.L.R. 433, refd to. [para. 62].

Margarine Case - see Reference Re Va­lid­ity of Section 5(a) of the Dairy Indus­try Act (Margarine Case).

R. v. Hauser, [1979] 1 S.C.R. 984; 26 N.R. 541; 16 A.R. 91; 46 C.C.C.(2d) 481; 98 D.L.R.(3d) 193; 8 C.R.(3d) 89, consd. [para. 62].

R. v. Boggs, [1981] 1 S.C.R. 49; 34 N.R. 520; 58 C.C.C.(2d) 7, refd to. [para. 64].

Reference Re Alberta Accurate News and Information Act, [1938] S.C.R. 100; [1938] 2 D.L.R. 81, refd to. [para. 66].

Singer (Allan) Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur général) et al., [1988] 2 S.C.R. 790; 90 N.R. 48; 19 Q.A.C. 33, refd to. [para. 70].

Devine et al. v. Quebec (Attorney General) - see Singer (Allan) Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur général) et al.

Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General) et al., [1993] 3 S.C.R. 519; 158 N.R. 1; 34 B.C.A.C. 1; 56 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 75].

R. v. Morgentaler, [1976] 1 S.C.R. 616; 4 N.R. 277; 20 C.C.C.(2d) 449, refd to. [para. 78].

R. v. Furtney et al., [1991] 3 S.C.R. 89; 129 N.R. 241; 51 O.A.C. 299, refd to. [para. 78].

Egan and Nesbit v. Canada, [1995] 2 S.C.R. 513; 182 N.R. 3, refd to. [para. 87].

R. v. Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd., [1988] 1 S.C.R. 401; 84 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 112].

Ontario (Attorney General) v. Canada (Attorney General)(Local Prohibition Case), [1896] A.C. 348 (P.C.), refd to. [para. 112].

Local Prohibition Case - see Ontario (Attorney General) v. Canada (Attorney General)(Local Prohibition Case).

Ontario (Attorney General) v. Canada Temperance Federation, [1946] A.C. 193; [1946] 2 W.W.R. 1; [1946] 2 D.L.R. 1; 1 C.R. 229; 115 L.J.P.C. 54; 85 C.C.C. 225, refd to. [para. 112].

Canada Temperance Federation Case - see Ontario (Attorney General) v. Canada Temperance Federation.

Scowby et al. v. Glendinning et al., [1986] 2 S.C.R. 226; 70 N.R. 241; 51 Sask.R. 208, consd. [para. 125].

Reference Re Lord's Day Act (Ont.) - see Ontario (Attorney General) v. Hamilton Street Railway Co.

Ontario (Attorney General) v. Hamilton Street Railway Co., [1903] A.C. 524; 2 O.W.R. 672; 7 C.C.C. 326 (P.C.), refd to. [para. 125].

Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. v. R., [1956] S.C.R. 303; 2 D.L.R.(2d) 11, refd to. [para. 125].

R. v. Zelensky et al., [1978] 2 S.C.R. 940; 21 N.R. 372, refd to. [para. 125].

Proprietary Articles Trade Association v. Canada (Attorney General), [1931] A.C. 310 (P.C.), refd to. [para. 125].

Anti-Inflation Act, Re, [1976] 2 S.C.R. 373; 9 N.R. 541, refd to. [para. 127].

Reference Re Anti-Inflation Act - see Anti-Inflation Act, Re.

Upper Churchill Water Rights Reversion Act, 1980, Re; Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp. et al. v. Newfoundland (At­torney General) et al., [1984] 1 S.C.R. 297; 53 N.R. 268; 47 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 125; 139 A.P.R. 125; 8 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 127].

Reference Re Upper Churchill Water Rights Reversion Act - see Upper Churchill Water Rights Reversion Act, 1980, Re.

R. v. Schneider, [1982] 2 S.C.R. 112; 43 N.R. 91; [1982] 6 W.W.R. 673; 39 B.C.L.R. 273; 68 C.C.C.(2d) 449; 139 D.L.R.(3d) 417, consd. [para. 129].

Switzman v. Elbling, [1957] S.C.R. 285; 117 C.C.C. 129; 7 D.L.R.(2d) 337, refd to. [para. 130].

R. v. Wetmore et al., [1983] 2 S.C.R. 284; 49 N.R. 286, consd. [para. 137].

Standard Sausage Co. v. Lee, [1933] 4 D.L.R. 501, addendum [1934] 1 D.L.R. 706 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 137].

R. v. Swain, [1991] 1 S.C.R. 933; 125 N.R. 1; 47 O.A.C. 81; 63 C.C.C.(3d) 481, refd to. [para. 138].

R. v. Cosman's Furniture (1972) Ltd. (1976), 32 C.C.C.(2d) 345; 73 D.L.R.(3d) 312 (Man. C.A.), refd to. [para. 139].

R. v. Big M Drug Mart Ltd., [1985] 1 S.C.R. 295; 58 N.R. 81; 60 A.R. 161; [1985] 3 W.W.R. 481; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 18 D.L.R.(4th) 321; 37 Alta. L.R.(2d) 97; 85 C.L.L.C. 14,023; 13 C.R.R. 64, refd to. [para. 141].

British Columbia (Attorney General) v. Canada (Attorney General), [1937] A.C. 368; 67 C.C.C. 193; [1937] 1 D.L.R. 688 (P.C.), refd to. [para. 144].

R. v. Campbell, [1965] S.C.R. vii, refd to. [para. 144].

Lord's Day Alliance v. British Columbia (Attorney General), [1959] S.C.R. 497; 30 C.R. 193; 123 C.C.C. 81, consd. [para. 150].

R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al., [1986] 2 S.C.R. 713; 71 N.R. 161; 19 O.A.C. 239; 30 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 55 C.R.(3d) 193; 35 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 28 C.R.R. 1, consd. [para. 160].

Edwards Books and Art Ltd. v. R. - see R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al.

R. v. Edwards Books and Art Ltd. - see R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al.

United States of America v. Cotroni; Unit­ed States of America v. El Zein, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1469; 96 N.R. 321; 23 Q.A.C. 182, consd. [para. 160].

R. v. Jones, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 284; 69 N.R. 241; 73 A.R. 133, refd to. [para. 160].

Andrews v. Law Society of British Co­lumbia, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 143; 91 N.R. 255; 56 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 160].

Black & Co. v. Law Society of Alberta, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 591; 93 N.R. 266; 96 A.R. 352, refd to. [para. 160].

McKinney v. University of Guelph et al., [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229; 118 N.R. 1; 45 O.A.C. 1; 76 D.L.R.(4th) 545; 2 C.R.R.(2d) 1, refd to. [para. 160].

Dickason and Human Rights Commission (Alta.) v. University of Alberta, [1992] 2 S.C.R. 1103; 141 N.R. 1; 127 A.R. 241; 20 W.A.C. 241, refd to. [para. 160].

Dorval v. Bouvier, [1968] S.C.R. 288, refd to. [para. 176].

Lapointe v. Chevrette, [1992] 1 S.C.R. 351; 133 N.R. 116; 45 Q.A.C. 262, refd to. [para. 176].

Lapointe v. Hôpital Le Gardeur - see Lapointe v. Chevrette.

Dunagin v. Oxford Mississippi (City) (1983), 718 F.2d 738 (Ct. App. 5th Cir. en banc), cert. denied (1984), 407 U.S. 1259, consd. [para. 177].

Lavigne v. Ontario Public Service Em­ployees' Union et al., [1991] 2 S.C.R. 211; 126 N.R. 161; 48 O.A.C. 241; 81 D.L.R.(4th) 545; 4 C.R.R.(2d) 193, consd. [para. 179].

Central Hudson Gas & Electric Co. v. Public Service Commission (1980), 447 U.S. 557 (U.S. Sup. Ct.), consd. [para. 191].

Oklahoma Telecasters Association v. Crisp (1983), 699 F.2d 490 (Ct. App. 10th Cir.), revd. on other grounds (1984), 467 U.S. 791, consd. [para. 191].

Capital Cities Cable Inc. v. Crisp - see Oklahoma Telecasters Association v. Crisp.

Metromedia Inc. v. San Diego (City) (1981), 453 U.S. 490, refd to. [para. 191].

Posadas de Puerto Rico Association v. Tourism Co. of Puerto Rico (1986), 478 U.S. 328, refd to. [para. 191].

Canadian Association of Regulated Importers et al. v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., [1992] 2 F.C. 130; 135 N.R. 217 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 198].

Canada (Minister of Industry, Trade and Commerce) v. Central Cartage Co. et al. (No. 1), [1990] 2 F.C. 641; 109 N.R. 357; 71 D.L.R.(4th) 253; 32 C.P.R.(3d) 308 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 198].

R. v. Schwartz, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 443; 88 N.R. 90; 56 Man.R.(2d) 92; 45 C.C.C.(3d) 97; [1989] 1 W.W.R. 289; 66 C.R.(3d) 251; 55 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 202].

Manitoba Language Rights Reference, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 721; 59 N.R. 321; 35 Man.R.(2d) 83; 19 D.L.R.(4th) 1; [1985] 4 W.W.R. 385, consd. [para. 207].

Reference Re Manitoba Language Rights - see Manitoba Language Rights Refer­ence.

Canadian Broadcasting Corp. v. Dagenais et al., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 835; 175 N.R. 1; 76 O.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 209].

Thomson Newspapers Ltd. v. Director of Investigation and Research, Combines Investigation Act et al., [1990] 1 S.C.R. 425; 106 N.R. 161; 39 O.A.C. 161; 54 C.C.C.(3d) 417; 76 C.R.(3d) 129; 67 D.L.R.(4th) 161; 29 C.P.R.(3d) 97; 47 C.R.R. 1, consd. [para. 215].

Statutes Noticed:

Canada Evidence Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-5, sect. 39 [para. 45].

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, sect. 1 [para. 4]; sect. 2(b) [para. 3].

Charter of the French Language, R.S.Q. 1977, c. C-11, sect. 58, sect. 69, sect. 205, sect. 206, sect. 207, sect. 208 [para. 206].

Communistic Propaganda, Act respecting, R.S.Q. 1941, c. 52, generally [para. 130].

Constitution Act, 1867, sect. 91(27) [para. 61]; sect. 92(13), sect. 92(16) [para. 130].

Consumer Protection Act, R.S.Q. 1977, c. P-40.1, sect. 248, sect. 249 [para. 201].

Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1970, c. C-34, sect. 193, sect. 195.1(1)(c) [para. 147]; sect. 251 [para. 151].

Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, sect. 163(8) [para. 171]; sect. 214(b) [para. 147]; sect. 207 [para. 152]; sect. 319(2) [para. 170].

Dairy Industry Act, R.S.C. 1927, c. 45, sect. 5(a) [para. 136].

Excise Act, the Customs Act and the Tobacco Sales to Young Persons Act, Act to amend the, S.C. 1994, c. 37, generally [para. 135].

Food and Drugs Act, R.S.C. 1927, c. 76, sect. 3, sect. 4, sect. 27 [para. 137].

Food and Drugs Act, R.S.C. 1970, c. F-27, sect. 8, sect. 9 [para. 137].

Hazardous Products Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. H-3, sect. 2, sect. 4, sect. 5(a), sect. 15(1)(d), sect. 15(1)(e) [para. 139].

Health Disciplines Act Regulations (Ont.), Reg. 447, sect. 37(39), sect. 37(40) [para. 204].

Lord's Day Act, R.S.C. 1952, c. 171, sect. 6 [para. 150].

Medical Services Act, R.S.N.S. 1989, c. 281, generally [para. 130].

Non-Smokers' Health Act, S.C. 1988, c. 21, generally [para. 135].

Retail Business Holidays Act, R.S.O. 1980, c. 453, sect. 2(1), sect. 3(4) [para. 202].

Tobacco Products Control Act, S.C. 1988, c. 20, sect. 3 [para. 102]; sect. 4, sect. 5, sect. 6, sect. 7, sect. 8, sect. 9, sect. 10, sect. 17(a), sect. 17(f), sect. 17(g), sect. 18, sect. 19 [para. 108].

Tobacco Products Control Act Regulations (Can.), Tobacco Products Control Regu­lations amendment, SOR/93-389, sect. 11 [para. 105].

Tobacco Products Control Regulations - see Tobacco Products Control Act Regu­lations (Can.).

Tobacco Sales to Young Persons Act, S.C. 1993, c. 5, generally [para. 135].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Canada, Health and Welfare Canada, Ca­na­dian Initiatives in Smoking and Health (1983), pp. 79 to 81 [para. 133].

Canada, Health and Welfare Canada, Report by Donald T. Wigle, Illness and Death in Canada by Smoking: An Epidemiological Perspective (1989), generally [para. 128].

Canada, Health and Welfare Canada, Na­tio­nal Program to Reduce Tobacco Use, Directional paper of the national program to reduce tobacco use in Canada (1988), generally [para. 134].

Canada, Health and Welfare Canada, Na­tio­nal Program to Reduce Tobacco Use, Orientation Manuals & Historical Per­spective (1987), generally [para. 134].

Canada, Health and Welfare Canada, Tobacco Products Unit, Report by Roberta G. Ferrence, Trends in Tobacco Consumption in Canada, 1900-1987 (1989), generally [para. 128].

Canada, House of Commons Debates, vol. IX, 2nd Sess., 33rd Parl. (1987), November 23rd, 1987, pp. 11042 [para. 127]; 11045, 11047 [para. 132].

Canada, House of Commons, Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Social Affairs, Report (1969), pp. 30, 32 [para. 133]; 52, 53 [paras. 133, 195].

Chandler, Michael J., A Report on the Special Vulnerabilities of Children and Adolescents (1989), pp. 17 to 18 [para. 189]; 19 [paras. 173, 214].

Chapman, Simon, and Fitzgerald, Bill, Brand Preference and Advertising Recall in Adolescent Smokers: Some Implica­tions for Health Promotion (1982), 72 Am. J. Public Health 491, generally [para. 173].

Collinshaw, N., Tostowaryk, W., Wigle, D., Mortality Attributable to Tobacco Use in Canada (1988), 79(3) Can. J. Public Health, generally [para. 128].

Cohen, Joel, Effects of Cigarette Adver­tising on Consumer Behaviour, pp. 41 to 42 [para. 205]; 44 [para. 189].

Gorn, Gerald J., and Florsheim, Renée, The Effects of Commercials for Adult Products on Children (1985), 11 J. Con­sumer Res. 962, generally [para. 173].

Hagan, John, Can Social Science Save Us? The Problems and Prospects of Social Science Evidence in Constitutional Liti­gation, In Robert J. Sharpe, ed. Charter Litigation (1987), p. 215 [para. 176].

Hogg, Peter, Constitutional Law of Canada (3rd ed. 1992), p. 18-5 [para. 63].

Imasco Ltd., Annual Report 1992, pp. 48, 52 to 53 [para. 172].

Imperial Tobacco Ltd., Overview 1988, p. 32954 [para. 188].

Imperial Tobacco Ltd., Project Viking, vol. I, A Behavioural Model of Smoking (1986), generally [para. 37].

Imperial Tobacco Ltd., Project Viking, vol. II, An Attitudinal Model of Smoking (1986), pp. 31 to 35 [para. 186].

Imperial Tobacco Ltd., Project Viking, vol. III, Product Issues (1986), generally [para. 186].

Imperial Tobacco Ltd., Project 16, by Kwechansky Marketing Research Inc. (1977), generally [para. 188].

Imperial Tobacco Ltd., Project Plus/Minus, by Kwechansky Marketing Research Inc. (1982), generally [para. 163].

Joosens, Luc, Strategy of the Tobacco Industry Concerning Legislation on Tobacco Advertising in Some Western European Countries, in Proceedings of the 5th World Conference on Smoking and Health (1983), generally [para. 200].

Morgan, Brian G., Proof of Facts in Char­ter Litigation, in Robert J. Sharpe, ed., Charter Litigation (1987), p. 186 [para. 177].

New Zealand, Toxic Substances Board, Health or Tobacco: An End to Tobacco Advertising and Promotion (1989), gen­erally [para. 34].

Pollay, Richard W., The Functions and Management of Cigarette Advertising (1989), pp. 2 [para. 173]; 28 to 29 [para. 205]; 34 [para. 189].

RJR-MacDonald Inc., Export "A" Brand Long-Term Strategy, generally [para. 188].

Rothschild, Michael L., Advertising: From Fundamentals to Strategies (1987), p. 8 [para. 173].

United States of America, Attorney Gen­eral's Commission on Pornography, Final Report (1986), vol. 1, p. 326 [para. 182].

United States of America, Department of Health and Human Services, Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress, A Report of the Sur­geon General (1989), pp. 315 to 316, 664 to 665 [para. 205]; 512 to 513 [paras. 163, 183].

United States of America, Department of Health and Human Services, The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction, A Report of the Surgeon General (1988), generally [para. 131].

Woolhandler, Ann, Rethinking the Judicial Reception of Legislative Facts (1988), 41 Vand. L. Rev. 111, pp. 114, 123 [para. 176].

Counsel:

Colin K. Irving, Georges R. Thibaudeau and Douglas Mitchell, for RJR-MacDonald Inc.;

L. Yves Fortier, Q.C., Simon V. Potter, Lyndon A.J. Barnes and Gregory Bordan, for Imperial Tobacco Ltd.;

Alain Gingras, for the Attorney General of Quebec;

Claude Joyal, James Mabbutt, Q.C., Paul Evraire, Q.C., Yves Leboeuf and Johanne Poirier, for the Attorney General of Canada;

Tanya Lee, for the Attorney General of Ontario;

Robert W. Cosman, Karl Delwaide and Richard B. Swan, for the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Canadian Cancer Society, Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, Canadian Medical Association, and Canadian Lung Associ­ation.

Solicitors of Record:

McMaster, Meighen, Montréal, Quebec, for RJR-MacDonald Inc.;

Ogilvy, Renault, Montréal, Quebec, for Imperial Tobacco Ltd.;

Attorney General of Quebec, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, for the Attorney General of Quebec;

Côté & Ouellet, Montréal, Quebec, for the Attorney General of Canada;

Attorney General for Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, for the Attorney General for Ontario;

Fasken, Campbell, Godfrey, Toronto, Ontario, for the Heart and Stroke Foun­dation of Canada, Canadian Cancer Society, Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, Canadian Medical Associ­ation, and Canadian Lung Association.

This appeal was heard on November 29 and 30, 1994, by Lamer, C.J.C., La Forest, L'Heureux-Dubé, Sopinka, Gonthier, Cory, McLachlin, Iacobucci and Major, JJ., of the Supreme Court of Canada.

The judgment of the Supreme Court was delivered in both official languages on Sep­tember 21, 1995 and the following opinions were filed:

McLachlin, J. - see paragraphs 1 to 57;

Major, J. - see paragraphs 58 to 82;

Sopinka, J. - see paragraph 83;

Iacobucci, J. - see paragraphs 84 to 97;

Lamer, C.J.C. - see paragraph 98;

La Forest, J. (L'Heureux-Dubé and Gonthier, JJ., concurring), dissenting - see paragraphs 99 to 216;

Cory, J., dissenting - see paragraph 217.

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712 practice notes
  • Quebec (Attorney General) v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., (2015) 469 N.R. 97 (SCC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court of Canada
    • March 27, 2015
    ...N.R. 335; 175 O.A.C. 363; 2003 SCC 39, refd to. [para. 25]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 29]. Quebec (Attorney General) v. Lacombe et al., [2010] 2 S.C.R. 453; 407 N.R. 1; 2010 SCC 38, refd to. [p......
  • R. v. Lucas (J.D.) et al., (1998) 224 N.R. 161 (SCC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court of Canada
    • April 2, 1998
    ...161; 9 B.C.A.C. 161; 19 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 47]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. R. v. Johnson et al., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 965; 174 N.R. 321; 76 O.A.C. 241; 94 C.C.C.(3d) 385, refd to. [para. 55]......
  • Vriend et al. v. Alberta, (1998) 224 N.R. 1 (SCC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court of Canada
    • April 2, 1998
    ...1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308, refd to. [para. 108]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. c. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur général), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927; 94 N.R. 167; 24 Q.A.C. 2; 58 D.L.R.(4th) ......
  • Harper v. Canada (Attorney General), 2002 ABCA 301
    • Canada
    • Court of Appeal (Alberta)
    • December 16, 2002
    ...Sask.R. 1 ; 272 W.A.C. 1 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 35]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1 , refd to. [paras. 36, Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada v. Northwest Territories (Commissioner) et al......
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559 cases
  • Quebec (Attorney General) v. Canada (Attorney General) et al., (2015) 469 N.R. 97 (SCC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court of Canada
    • March 27, 2015
    ...N.R. 335; 175 O.A.C. 363; 2003 SCC 39, refd to. [para. 25]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 29]. Quebec (Attorney General) v. Lacombe et al., [2010] 2 S.C.R. 453; 407 N.R. 1; 2010 SCC 38, refd to. [p......
  • R. v. Lucas (J.D.) et al., (1998) 224 N.R. 161 (SCC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court of Canada
    • April 2, 1998
    ...161; 9 B.C.A.C. 161; 19 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 47]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. R. v. Johnson et al., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 965; 174 N.R. 321; 76 O.A.C. 241; 94 C.C.C.(3d) 385, refd to. [para. 55]......
  • Vriend et al. v. Alberta, (1998) 224 N.R. 1 (SCC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Supreme Court of Canada
    • April 2, 1998
    ...1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308, refd to. [para. 108]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. c. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur général), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927; 94 N.R. 167; 24 Q.A.C. 2; 58 D.L.R.(4th) ......
  • Harper v. Canada (Attorney General), 2002 ABCA 301
    • Canada
    • Court of Appeal (Alberta)
    • December 16, 2002
    ...Sask.R. 1 ; 272 W.A.C. 1 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 35]. RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1 , refd to. [paras. 36, Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada v. Northwest Territories (Commissioner) et al......
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8 firm's commentaries
  • BLANEY’S APPEALS: ONTARIO COURT OF APPEAL SUMMARIES (MAY 13 – 17, 2019)
    • Canada
    • LexBlog Canada
    • May 17, 2019
    ...(4th) 67 (FCA), Quebec (Attorney General) v A, 2013 SCC 5, R v Moriarity, 2015 SCC 55, RJR-MacDonald Inc v Canada (Attorney General), [1995] 3 SCR 199, Gordon v Canada (Attorney General), 2016 ONCA 625, leave to appeal to SCC refused, [2016] SCCA No 444 and No 445, R v Swain, [1991] 1 SCR 9......
  • Court Of Appeal Summaries (February 27, 2023 ' March 3, 2023)
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • March 10, 2023
    ...(Attorney General) v. Bedford, 2013 SCC 72, R. v. Collins, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 265, RJR-MacDonald Inc. v. Canada (Attorney General), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199, Harper v. Canada (Attorney General), 2004 SCC 33, Thomson Newspapers Co. v. Canada (Attorney General), [1998] 1 S.C.R. 877, R. v. Sharpe, 200......
  • Québec Court Of Appeal Strikes Down Federal Genetic Non-Discrimination Act
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • January 30, 2019
    ...12-13. vi See respectively Ref re Firearms Act (Can), 2000 SCC 31; R v. Malmo-Levine, 2003 SCC 74; RJR-MacDonald Inc. v. Canada (AG), [1995] 3 SCR 199. vii Reference Re Genetic Non-Discrimination Act, supra note 1, at para viii Ibid., at para 24. ix Ibid. x Ibid., at para 14. xi Ibid., at p......
  • Freedom Of Speech + Professional Discipline: Striking The Balance
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • October 2, 2018
    ...Broadcasting Corp v New Brunswick (Attorney General), [1996] 2 SCR 480 at para 63; RJR MacDonald Inc v Canada (Attorney General), [1995] 3 SCR 199 at para 12 Ibid at para 35. 13 Ibid at para 71. 14 Ibid at para 113. The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the s......
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145 books & journal articles
  • The Criminal Law and the Constitution
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Criminal Law. Eighth edition
    • September 1, 2022
    ...914. 5 R v Swain , [1991] 1 SCR 933; R v Demers [2004] 2 SCR 489. 6 R v Zelensky , [1978] 2 SCR 940. 7 RJR-MacDonald Inc v Canada (AG) , [1995] 3 SCR 199. The advertising restrictions were, however, struck down under the Charter as unjustiied restrictions on freedom of expression. 8 R v Hyd......
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive The Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Fifth Edition
    • August 29, 2013
    ...415 RJR-MacDonald Inc v Canada (Attorney General), [1995] 3 SCR 199, 127 DLR (4th) 1, [1995] SCJ No 68 ....................................................... 41 , 1 58 Rocket v Royal College of Dental Surgeons of Ontario, [1990] 2 SCR 232, 71 DLR (4th) 68 ........................................
  • Limitation of Charter Rights
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive The Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Sixth Edition
    • June 22, 2021
    ...104. 49 Sauvé , above note 21 at para 18. 50 R v Butler , [1992] 1 SCR 452, 89 DLR (4th) 449 [ Butler ]. 51 RJR–MacDonald v Canada , [1995] 3 SCR 199, 127 DLR (4th) 1 [ RJR ]. Limitation of Charter Rights 77 the law under review. 52 In one of the most notable cases to be decided by the Supr......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Canadian Telecommunications Law
    • September 6, 2011
    ...(3d) 593, [2008] O.J. No. 3671 (S.C.J.) ................................................................ 284 RJR-MacDonald v. Canada, [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199, 127 D.L.R. (4th) 1, [1995] S.C.J. No. 68 ............................................................................ 35, 37 Robert D. S......
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