AuthorPeter Sankoff; Vaughan Black; Katie Sykes
5-stepTM Animal Welfare Ratings Stan-
dards, 283
Aaltola, Elisa, 18. See also Personhood
Aboriginal rights, 159–89, 192–96,
199–201, 203, 207, 210. See also
Deckha, Maneesha; Duty to con-
sult; Haudenosaunee Council;
Indigenous laws; Indigenous
peoples; Short Hills Provincial
Park; Treaty rights; Wildlife Act
Aboriginal title, 201n
animal rights, in tension with,
167–69, 172–73, 193
infringement, 199
legal test, 198–99
honour of the Crown, 199
section 35, 193–96, 198–99, 202–3
United States, in, 197
Act to Prevent the Cruel and Improper
Treatment of Cattle, An (Martin’s
Act), 50, 55, 67n. See also Martin,
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
for the Sustainable Use of Biodiver-
sity, 214. See also Animal welfare
principle; Global animal law
Administrative approach to penalties,
61–63. See also Canada Agricul-
tural Review Tribunal (CART);
Health of Animals Act (Cana-
da) (HAA); Health of Animals
Regulations; Meat Inspection
Act (Canada) (MIA); Tickets for
causing animal suering in
contrasted to criminal penalties,

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