Delisle v. Can. (A.G.), (1999) 244 N.R. 33 (SCC)

JudgeL'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier, Cory, McLachlin, Iacobucci, Major and Bastarache, JJ.
CourtSupreme Court (Canada)
Case DateOctober 07, 1998
JurisdictionCanada (Federal)
Citations(1999), 244 N.R. 33 (SCC);[1999] ACS no 43;244 NR 33;1999 CanLII 649 (SCC);[1999] SCJ No 43 (QL);176 DLR (4th) 513;[1999] 2 SCR 989;66 CRR (2d) 14

Delisle v. Can. (A.G.) (1999), 244 N.R. 33 (SCC)

MLB Headnote and full text

[French language version follows English language version]

[La version française vient à la suite de la version anglaise]

....................

Temp. Cite: [1999] N.R. TBEd. SE.001

Gaétan Delisle (appelant) v. Le Procureur général du Canada (intimé) et L'Alliance de la Fonction publique du Canada, l'Association canadienne des policiers, la Fédération des enseignantes et des enseignants de l'Ontario et le Congrès du travail du Canada (intervenants)

(25926)

Indexed As: Delisle v. Canada (Attorney General) et al.

Supreme Court of Canada

L'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier, Cory, McLachlin, Iacobucci, Major and Bastarache, JJ.

September 2, 1999.

Summary:

The definition of "employee" in s. 2(1)(e) of the Public Service Staff Relations Act (PSSRA) expressly excluded RCMP mem­bers from its application. Section 6 of the Canada Labour Code (Code) provided that Part I of the Code did not apply to employees of Her Majesty in Right of Canada. Delisle, a member of the RCMP, brought a motion requesting that s. 2(1)(e) of the PSSRA and s. 6 of the Code be declared of no force and effect because they violated ss. 2(b), 2(d) and 15(1) of the Charter (free­dom of expression, freedom of association and equality rights).

The Quebec Superior Court dismissed the motion. Delisle appealed.

The Quebec Court of Appeal, Baudoin, J.A., dissenting on the freedom of as­sociation issue, dismissed the appeal. Delisle appealed.

The Supreme Court of Canada, per Bastarache, J. (Gonthier, McLachlin and Major, JJ., concurring) and L'Heureux-Dubé, J., dismissed the appeal, holding that s. 6 of the Code and s. 2(1)(e) of the PSSRA did not infringe or deny Delisle's s. 2(b), 2(d) or 15(1) Charter rights. Cory and Iacobucci, JJ., dissenting, would have allowed the appeal on the basis that s. 2(1)(e) of the PSSRA vio­lated s. 2(d) of the Charter and was not saved under s. 1.

Civil Rights - Topic 303

Freedom of conscience and religion - General - Scope of right - [See first Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 1803

Freedom of speech or expression - Gen­eral principles - Freedom of expression - Scope of - [See first and fourth Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 1804

Freedom of speech or expression - Gen­eral principles - Scope of freedom of speech - [See first Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 1852.1

Freedom of speech or expression - Limi­ta­tions on - Labour legislation - [See fourth Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 2103

Freedom of association - General - Scope of right - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that "... while the letter and spirit of the right to equality sometimes dictate a requirement of inclusion in a statutory regime, the same cannot be said of the individual freedoms set out in s. 2, which generally requires only that the state not interfere and does not call upon any com­parative standard" - See paragraph 16.

Civil Rights - Topic 2103

Freedom of association - General - Scope of right - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that "... the exclusion of a group of workers from a specific statutory regime does not preclude the establishment of a parallel, independent employee association, and thus does not violate s. 2(d) of the Charter. Neither is there any violation of s. 2(d) merely because one group of workers is included in the regime while another is not." - See paragraph 19.

Civil Rights - Topic 2103

Freedom of association - General - Scope of right - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that "... under the trade union certi­fi­cation system, the government may limit access to mechanisms that facilitate labour relations to one employee organization in particular, and impose certain technical rules on that organization. It goes without saying that it must, however, be a genuine employee association that management does not control. Otherwise, there would be a violation of s. 2(d). This said, I repeat that there is no general obligation for the government to provide a particular legisla­tive framework for its employees to exer­cise their collective rights. However, they may freely set up an independent employee association which is protected against employer interference in its busi­ness by s. 2(d) of the Charter and which may carry on any lawful activity that its members may carry on individually, in­cluding repre­senting their interests." - See paragraph 28.

Civil Rights - Topic 2103

Freedom of association - General - Scope of right - The definition of "employee" in s. 2(1)(e) of the Public Service Staff Re­lations Act (PSSRA) expressly excluded RCMP members from its application - Section 6 of the Canada Labour Code (Code) provided that Part I of the Code did not apply to employees of Her Majesty in Right of Canada - Delisle, an RCMP mem­ber, brought a motion requesting that s. 2(1)(e) of the PSSRA and s. 6 of the Code be declared of no force and effect because they violated ss. 2(b), 2(d) and 15(1) of the Charter (i.e., freedom of ex­pression, freedom of association and equality rights) - The Supreme Court of Canada found no Charter violations - Freedom of association did not include the right to establish a particular type of asso­ciation defined in a particular statute; the professional status or employment of RCMP members were not analogous grounds under s. 15 and the exclusion of RCMP members from the PSSRA was not discriminatory - See para­graphs 1 to 38.

Civil Rights - Topic 2155

Freedom of association - Limitations on - Labour legislation - [See second, third and fourth Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 2302

Freedom of assembly - General - Scope of freedom of assembly - [See first Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 2403

Freedom of the press - General principles -Scope of freedom of the press - [See first Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 5668

Equality and protection of the law - Par­ticular cases - Labour legislation - [See fourth Civil Rights - Topic 2103 ].

Cases Noticed:

Reference Re Compulsory Arbitration, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 313; 74 N.R. 99; 78 A.R. 1; 38 D.L.R.(4th) 161, refd to. [paras. 2, 45, 55].

Reference Re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alta.) - see Reference Re Compulsory Arbitration.

Public Service Alliance of Canada v. Canada, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 424; 75 N.R. 161, refd to. [paras. 2, 55].

Retail, Wholesale, Department Store Union, Locals 544, 496, 635 and 955 et al. v. Saskatchewan et al., [1987] 1 S.C.R. 460; 74 N.R. 321; 56 Sask.R. 277, refd to. [paras. 2, 55].

Canadian Egg Marketing Agency v. Pine­view Poultry Product et al., [1998] 3 S.C.R. 157; 231 N.R. 201, refd to. [para. 2].

Canadian Egg Marketing Agency v. Richardson - see Canadian Egg Market­ing Agency v. Pineview Poultry Product et al.

Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada v. Northwest Territories (Commissioner) et al., [1990] 2 S.C.R. 367; 112 N.R. 269; [1990] 5 W.W.R. 385, refd to. [paras. 2, 57].

R. v. Big M Drug Mart Ltd., [1985] 1 S.C.R. 295; 58 N.R. 81; 60 A.R. 161; [1985] 3 W.W.R. 481; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 18 D.L.R.(4th) 321; 37 Alta. L.R.(2d) 97; 85 C.L.L.C. 14,023; 13 C.R.R. 64, refd to. [paras. 5, 73].

Irwin Toy Ltd. v. Québec (Procureur gén­é­ral), [1989] 1 S.C.R. 927; 94 N.R. 167; 24 Q.A.C. 2; 58 D.L.R.(4th) 577; 25 C.P.R.(3d) 417, refd to. [paras. 9, 130].

R. v. Keegstra, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 697; 117 N.R. 1; 114 A.R. 81; 1 C.R.(4th) 129; 77 Alta. L.R.(2d) 193; [1991] 2 W.W.R. 1; 61 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 3 C.R.R.(2d) 193, refd to. [para. 9].

R. v. Gladue (J.T.), [1999] 1 S.C.R. 688; 238 N.R. 1; 121 B.C.A.C. 161; 198 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [paras. 10, 79].

Opetchesaht Indian Band et al. v. Canada et al., [1997] 2 S.C.R. 119; 211 N.R. 241; 90 B.C.A.C. 1; 147 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 10].

Davidson v. Slaight Communications Inc., [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1038; 93 N.R. 183; 59 D.L.R.(4th) 416; 26 C.C.E.L. 85; 89 C.L.L.C. 14,031; 40 C.R.R. 100, refd to. [paras. 11, 67].

Schachter v. Canada et al., [1992] 2 S.C.R. 679; 139 N.R. 1; 93 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 92 C.L.L.C. 14,036; 10 C.R.R.(2d) 1; 93 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 16].

Vriend et al. v. Alberta, [1998] 1 S.C.R. 493; 224 N.R. 1; 212 A.R. 237; 168 W.A.C. 237, refd to. [paras. 16, 109].

Haig et al. v. Canada; Haig et al. v. Kingsley, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 995; 156 N.R. 81; 105 D.L.R.(4th) 577; 16 C.R.R.(2d) 193, refd to. [paras. 18, 45, 109].

Native Women's Association of Canada et al. v. Canada et al., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 627; 173 N.R. 241, refd to. [para. 18].

Ramsden v. Peterborough (City), [1993] 2 S.C.R. 1084; 156 N.R. 2; 66 O.A.C. 10, refd to. [para. 31].

Law v. Minister of Employment and Im­migration, [1999] 1 S.C.R. 497; 236 N.R. 1, refd to. [para. 33].

Corbière et al. v. Canada (Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs) et al. (1999), 239 N.R. 1 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 34].

Atkins v. Charlotte (City) (1969), 296 F. Supp. 1068, refd to. [para. 58].

Lavigne v. Ontario Public Service Em­ployees' Union et al., [1991] 2 S.C.R. 211; 126 N.R. 161; 48 O.A.C. 241; 81 D.L.R.(4th) 545; 4 C.R.R.(2d) 193, refd to. [para. 63].

McKinney v. University of Guelph et al., [1990] 3 S.C.R. 229; 118 N.R. 1; 45 O.A.C. 1; 76 D.L.R.(4th) 545; 2 C.R.R.(2d) 1, refd to. [para. 66].

Machtinger v. HOJ Industries Ltd., [1992] 1 S.C.R. 986; 136 N.R. 40; 53 O.A.C. 200; 91 D.L.R.(4th) 491, refd to. [para. 66].

Wallace v. United Grain Growers Ltd., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 701; 219 N.R. 161; 123 Man.R.(2d) 1; 159 W.A.C. 1; 152 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 66].

R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al., [1986] 2 S.C.R. 713; 71 N.R. 161; 19 O.A.C. 239; 30 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 55 C.R.(3d) 193; 35 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 28 C.R.R. 1, refd to. [para. 73].

Edwards Books and Art Ltd. v. R. - see R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al.

R. v. Edwards Books and Art Ltd. - see R. v. Videoflicks Ltd. et al.

Canada (Attorney General) v. Mossop, [1993] 1 S.C.R. 554; 149 N.R. 1; 100 D.L.R.(4th) 658; 13 Admin. L.R.(2d) 1, refd to. [para. 76].

R. v. Zundel (No. 2), [1992] 2 S.C.R. 731; 140 N.R. 1; 56 O.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 77].

Delisle v. Royal Canadian Mounted Police Commissioner et al. (1990), 39 F.T.R. 217 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 104].

Eldridge et al. v. British Columbia (At­torney General), [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624; 218 N.R. 161; 96 B.C.A.C. 81; 155 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 109].

R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 200; 50 C.R.(3d) 1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308, refd to. [para. 111].

Canadian Broadcasting Corp. v. Dagenais et al., [1994] 3 S.C.R. 835; 175 N.R. 1; 76 O.A.C. 81; 94 C.C.C.(3d) 289; 120 D.L.R.(4th) 12; 25 C.R.R.(2d) 1; 34 C.R.(4th) 269, refd to. [para. 111].

Thomson Newspapers Co. et al. v. Canada (Attorney General), [1998] 1 S.C.R. 877; 226 N.R. 1; 109 O.A.C. 201, refd to. [para. 111].

M. v. H. (1999), 238 N.R. 179; 121 O.A.C. 1 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 111].

RJR-MacDonald Inc. et Imperial Tobacco Ltd. v. Canada (Procureur général), [1995] 3 S.C.R. 199; 187 N.R. 1; 127 D.L.R.(4th) 1, refd to. [para. 117].

Attis v. Board of Education of District No. 15 et al., [1996] 1 S.C.R. 825; 195 N.R. 81; 171 N.B.R.(2d) 321; 437 A.P.R. 321, refd to. [para. 119].

Ross v. New Brunswick School District No. 15 - see Attis v. Board of Education of District No. 15 et al.

Royal Oak Mines Inc. v. Canada Labour Relations Board et al., [1996] 1 S.C.R. 369; 193 N.R. 81; 96 C.L.L.C. 141,983, refd to. [para. 126].

National Labour Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. (1937), 301 U.S. 1, refd to. [para. 142].

Amalgamated Utility Workers (C.I.O.) v. Consolidated Edison Co. of New York (1940), 309 U.S. 261, refd to. [para. 142].

Thomas v. Collins (1945), 323 U.S. 516 (U.S. Sup. Ct.), refd to. [para. 143].

Lontine v. VanCleave (1973), 483 F.2d 966 (10th Cir.), refd to. [para. 145].

Statutes Noticed:

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act (Can.) Regulations, Rules and Regu­lations for the Government and Guidance of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Force of Canada, 1945, Order-in-Coun­cil P.C. 174/1981, sect. 31(1) [para. 94].

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act (Can.) Regulations, Royal Canadian Mounted Police Commissioner's Stand­ing Orders, Division Staff Relations Repre­sentative Program, sect. 3(2) [para. 103].

Rules and Regulations for the Government and Guidance of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Force of Canada - see Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act (Can.) Regulations, Rules and Regu­lations for the Government and Guidance of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Force of Canada.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police Commis­sioner's Standing Orders, Division Staff Relations Representative Program - see Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act (Can.) Regulations, Royal Canadian Mounted Police Commissioner's Stand­ing Orders, Division Staff Relations Repre­sentative Program.

Authors and Works Noticed:

Ayres, R.M., and Wheelan, T.L., Collec­tive Bargaining in the Public Sector: Selected Readings in Law Enforcement (1977), p. 401 [para. 113].

Beahan, William, Report on Royal Ca­nadian Mounted Police, The Royal Ca­nadian Mounted Police and Unionization, An Historical Perspective on the R.C.M.P. and Protection of the National Interest: Responsibility Precluding Unionization (October 1987), vol. 1, Part 1, generally [para. 100].

Canada, Preparatory Committee on Col­lec­tive Bargaining in the Public Service of Canada Report (1965), p. 27 [paras. 43, 97].

Clark, Gerald, What Happens When Police Strike, in Ayres, R.M., and Wheelan, T.L., Collective Bargaining in the Public Sector: Selected Readings in Law En­forcement 401 (1977), p. 401 [para. 113].

Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Concluding Document of the Madrid Meeting (1983), 22 I.L.M. 1398, p. 1399, para. 13 [para. 71].

Corpus Juris Secundum (1967), vol. 51, p. 670 [para. 142].

Côté, Pierre-André, Interpretation of Leg­is­lation in Canada (2nd Ed. 1991), p. 314 [para. 7].

Fisher, E.G., and Starek, Henry, Police Bargaining in Canada: Private Sector Bargaining, Compulsory Arbitration and Mediation-Arbitration in Vancouver (1978), 2 Can. Police Coll. J. 133, gen­erally [para. 122].

Gibson, Dale, The Law of the Charter: General Principles (1986), p. 55 [para. 5].

Howard, George, Guardians of the Queen's Peace (1953), pp. 156, 157, 158 [para. 122].

Weiler, Paul C., The Charter at Work: Reflections on the Constitutionalizing of Labour and Employment Law (1990), 40 U.T.L.J. 117, p. 184 [para. 126].

Counsel:

James R.K. Duggan, for the appellant;

Claude Joyal, Raymond Piché, Michel Pépin, Winston Fogarty and Stéphane Perrault, for the respondent;

Andrew Raven and David Yazbeck, for the Public Service Alliance of Canada;

Julius H. Grey and Valérie Marcas, for the Canadian Police Association;

Howard Goldblatt and Vanessa Payne, for the Ontario Teachers' Association;

Steven Barrett and Vanessa Payne, for the Canadian Labour Congress.

Solicitors of Record:

James R.K. Duggan, Montréal, Quebec, for the appellant;

Côté & Ouellet, Montréal, Quebec, for the respondent;

Raven, Allen, Cameron & Ballantyne, Ottawa, Ontario, for the intervener, Pub­lic Service Alliance of Canada;

Grey, Casgrain, Montréal, Quebec, for the intervener, Canadian Police Association;

Sack Goldblatt Mitchell, Toronto, Ontario, for the interveners, the Ontario Teachers' Association and the Canadian Labour Congress.

This appeal was heard on October 7, 1998, before L'Heureux-Dubé, Gonthier, Cory, McLachlin, Iacobucci, Major and Bastarache, JJ., of the Supreme Court of Canada. The decision of the court was delivered in both official languages on September 2, 1999, including the following opinions:

Bastarache, J. (Gonthier, McLachlin and Major, concurring) - see paragraphs 1 to 38;

L'Heureux-Dubé, J. - see paragraphs 39 to 47;

Cory and Iacobucci, JJ., dissenting - see paragraphs 48 to 153.

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