AuthorJohn D. Holding, John S. Hoff
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Chapter 1: Introduction
The law of international air carriage is now governed in the United
States of America by the terms of the Montreal Convention, and War-
saw Convention and Protocols it superseded which were known col-
lectively as the “Warsaw System.” The Montreal Convention and the
treaties in the Warsaw system are treaties adhered to by the United
States and are therefore the “supreme law of the land.” The treaties
apply to all “international air transportation” of persons, baggage, or
cargo performed for hire between the United States and countries
who are also parties to the treaties.
Application of the treaties may be affected by agreements between
international air carriers. The following is an overview of the histori-
cal development of the law.
1) Warsaw Convention 1929
This treaty, formally known as “Convention for the Unif‌ication of
Certain Rules Relating to International Transportation,” conveniently
shortened to “The Warsaw Convention” was signed in Warsaw on
October 12, 1929. The treaty entered into f ull force and effect in the

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