Kadenko et al. v. Canada (Solliciteur général), (1996) 206 N.R. 272 (FCA)

JudgeHugessen and Décary, JJ.A.
CourtFederal Court of Appeal (Canada)
Case DateOctober 15, 1996
JurisdictionCanada (Federal)
Citations(1996), 206 N.R. 272 (FCA);1996 CanLII 3981 (FCA);143 DLR (4th) 532;206 NR 272;[1996] FCJ No 1376 (QL);124 FTR 160;68 ACWS (3d) 334

Kadenko v. Can. (1996), 206 N.R. 272 (FCA)

MLB headnote and full text

[French language version follows English language version]

[La version française vient à la suite de la version anglaise]

....................

Le Ministre de la Citoyenneté et de l'Im­migration (appelant) v. Ninal Kadenko, Boris Fedosov, Alexander Fedosov et Mila Fedosov (intimés)

(A-388-95)

Indexed As: Kadenko et al. v. Canada (Solliciteur général)

Federal Court of Appeal

Hugessen and Décary, JJ.A.

and Chevalier, D.J.

October 15, 1996.

Summary:

Four Christian citizens of Israel sought Convention refugee status in Canada on the basis of a well-founded fear of persecution. The Refugee Division rejected their claim. The refugee claimants sought judicial review.

The Federal Court of Canada, Trial Divi­sion, in a judgment reported 107 F.T.R. 25, allowed the application, quashed the Refugee Division's decision and referred the matter to be heard by a panel of different members. The court certified the following question for consideration by the Federal Court of Appeal:

"Where there has not been a complete breakdown of the governmental apparatus and where a state has political and judicial institutions capable of protecting its citi­zens, does the refusal by certain police officers to take action suffice to establish that the state in question is unable or unwilling to protect its nationals?"

The Federal Court of Appeal answered negatively the certified question as worded. The court allowed the appeal, set aside the Trial Division's judgment and dismissed the application for judicial review.

Aliens - Topic 1322

Admission - Refugees - Grounds - Well­founded fear of persecution - Four Chris­tian citizens of Israel sought refugee status alleging a well-founded fear of persecu­tion - They alleged harassment, including religious fanatics bursting into their home several times to control the food they ate and having armed gunmen burst into their apartment - The child claimant was har­assed at school and his mother was sex­ually assaulted and har­assed - Twice the police failed to react to these events - The Refugee Division rejected the refugee claim, holding that these were isolated acts of discrimination not amounting to perse­cution and that Israel was able to protect these claimants - The Federal Court of Canada, Trial Division, quashed the deci­sion and referred the matter for recon­sideration - The Fed­eral Court of Appeal allowed an appeal, set aside the Trial Division's judgment and the judicial review application.

Aliens - Topic 1323.2

Admission - Refugees - Persecution - Protection of country of nationality - The Federal Court of Canada, Trial Division, certified the following question: "Where there has not been a complete breakdown of the governmental apparatus and where a state has political and judicial institutions capable of protecting its citizens, does the refusal by certain police officers to take action suffice to establish that the state in question is unable or unwilling to protect its nationals?" - The Federal Court of Appeal answered negatively the question as worded - Refusal of certain police officers to take action cannot in itself render a state incapable of protecting its citizens - The claimant's burden of proof was directly proportional to the state's level of democracy - The more democratic the state, the more the claimant must have done to exhaust all courses of action - See paragraphs 3 to 5.

Cases Noticed:

Minister of Employment and Immigration v. Villafranca (1992), 150 N.R. 232 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 4].

Minister of Employment and Immigration v. Satiacum (1989), 99 N.R. 171 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. 5].

Canada (Attorney General) v. Ward, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 689; 153 N.R. 321, refd to. [para. 5].

Counsel:

Michèle Joubert, for the appellant;

Jacques Beauchemin, for the respondents.

Solicitors of Record:

George Thomson, Deputy Attorney General of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, for the appellant;

Alarie, Legault, Beauchemin, Paquin, Jobin & Brisson, Montreal, Quebec, for the respondents.

This appeal was heard in Montreal, Que­bec, on October 15, 1996, before Hugessen and Décary, JJ.A., and Chevalier, D.J., of the Federal Court of Appeal.

On October 15, 1996, Décary, J.A., ren­dered the following oral decision for the Court of Appeal.

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226 practice notes
  • Canadian Council for Refugees et al. v. Canada, 2007 FC 1262
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Federal Court (Canada)
    • November 29, 2007
    ...(Attorney General) v. Ward, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 689; 153 N.R. 321, refd to. [para. 134]. Kadenko et al. v. Canada (Solliciteur général) (1996), 206 N.R. 272; 143 D.L.R.(4th) 532 (F.C.A.), leave to appeal refused (1997), 218 N.R. 80 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. Acosta, Re (1985), 19 I. & N. Dec......
  • Conseil canadien pour les réfugiés c. Canada,
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • November 29, 2007
    ...D.L.R. (4th) 1; 20 Imm.L.R. (2d) 85; 153 N.R. 321; Kadenko v. Canada (Ministerof Citizenship and Immigration) (1996), 143 D.L.R. (4th)532; 206 N.R. 272 (F.C.A.); leave to appeal to S.C.C.refused [1996] S.C.C.A. No. 612 (QL); Ins v. Cardoza-Fonseca, 480 U.S. 421 (1987); Mogharrabi (Matter of......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Refugee Law. Second Edition
    • June 20, 2017
    ...[2003] RPDD No 184 (IRB) ................................................................ 149 Kadenko v Canada (Solicitor General) (1996), 143 DLR (4th) 532 (FCA) ........ 190 Kadoura v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2003] FCJ No 1328, 2003 FC 1057 ............................
  • The Definition of Convention Refugee
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Refugee Law. Second Edition
    • June 20, 2017
    ...224. 227 BR v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) , [2006] FCJ No 337 (FC). 228 Kadenko v Canada (Solicitor General) (1996), 143 DLR (4th) 532 (FCA). 229 Penelope Mathew et al, “The Role of State Protection in Refugee Analysis” (2003) 15 International Journal of Refugee Law 444......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
222 cases
  • Canadian Council for Refugees et al. v. Canada, 2007 FC 1262
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Federal Court (Canada)
    • November 29, 2007
    ...(Attorney General) v. Ward, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 689; 153 N.R. 321, refd to. [para. 134]. Kadenko et al. v. Canada (Solliciteur général) (1996), 206 N.R. 272; 143 D.L.R.(4th) 532 (F.C.A.), leave to appeal refused (1997), 218 N.R. 80 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. Acosta, Re (1985), 19 I. & N. Dec......
  • Conseil canadien pour les réfugiés c. Canada,
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • November 29, 2007
    ...D.L.R. (4th) 1; 20 Imm.L.R. (2d) 85; 153 N.R. 321; Kadenko v. Canada (Ministerof Citizenship and Immigration) (1996), 143 D.L.R. (4th)532; 206 N.R. 272 (F.C.A.); leave to appeal to S.C.C.refused [1996] S.C.C.A. No. 612 (QL); Ins v. Cardoza-Fonseca, 480 U.S. 421 (1987); Mogharrabi (Matter of......
  • Ruszo v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), (2013) 440 F.T.R. 106 (FC)
    • Canada
    • Canada (Federal) Federal Court (Canada)
    • March 7, 2013
    ...and Immigration), [2012] F.T.R. Uned. 358; 2012 FC 525, refd to. [para. 26]. Kadenko et al. v. Canada (Solliciteur général) (1996), 206 N.R. 272 (F.C.A.), refd to. [para. Avila v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (2006), 295 F.T.R. 35; 2006 FC 359, refd to. [para. 29]. Flore......
  • Rangel Lezama c. Canada (Citoyenneté et Immigration),
    • Canada
    • Federal Court (Canada)
    • August 11, 2011
    ...Immigration), 2010 FC 234, [2011] 2 F.C.R. 480; Kadenko v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (1996), 143 D.L.R. (4th) 532, 206 N.R. 272 (F.C.A.); Vigueras Avila v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), 2006 FC 359, 295 F.T.R. 35; Capitaine v. Canada (Minister of C......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
4 books & journal articles
  • Convention Refugees and Persons in Need of Protection
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Immigration Law. Second Edition Part Two
    • June 19, 2015
    ..., on the other hand, Zinn J exposes a problem with the demand that one require a claimant to seek out state protection. He 231 (1996), 143 DLR (4th) 532 at para 5 (FCA). 232 Hinzman FCA , above note 125 at paras 54 and 57. 233 Cosgun , above note 221. Convention Refugees and Persons in Need......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Immigration Law. Second Edition Part Four
    • June 19, 2015
    ...Kadenko v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) (1996), 143 DLR (4th) 532, 206 NR 272, [1996] FCJ No 1376 (CA) ....................................................................................... 337, 340 Table of Cases 697 Kadjo v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigrati......
  • The Definition of Convention Refugee
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Refugee Law. Second Edition
    • June 20, 2017
    ...224. 227 BR v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) , [2006] FCJ No 337 (FC). 228 Kadenko v Canada (Solicitor General) (1996), 143 DLR (4th) 532 (FCA). 229 Penelope Mathew et al, “The Role of State Protection in Refugee Analysis” (2003) 15 International Journal of Refugee Law 444......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Refugee Law. Second Edition
    • June 20, 2017
    ...[2003] RPDD No 184 (IRB) ................................................................ 149 Kadenko v Canada (Solicitor General) (1996), 143 DLR (4th) 532 (FCA) ........ 190 Kadoura v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [2003] FCJ No 1328, 2003 FC 1057 ............................

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