Newfoundland v. Drew et al., 2003 NLSCTD 105

JudgeL.D. Barry, J.
CourtSupreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)
Case DateJanuary 31, 2000
JurisdictionNewfoundland and Labrador
Citations2003 NLSCTD 105;(2003), 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1 (NFTD)

Nfld. v. Drew (2003), 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1 (NFTD);

    678 A.P.R. 1

MLB headnote and full text

Temp. Cite: [2003] Nfld. & P.E.I.R. TBEd. JL.031

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Newfoundland, as represented by the Minister of Government Services and Lands (plaintiff) v. Ken Drew (defendant) and Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Company of Canada (intervenors) and Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Limited (intervenor)

(1996 St. J. No. 1022; 199601T1022)

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Newfoundland, as represented by the Minister of Government Services and Lands (plaintiff) v. Wilfred John (defendant) and Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Company of Canada (intervenors) and Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Limited (intervenor)

(1996 St. J. No. 1024; 199601T1024)

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Newfoundland, as represented by the Minister of Government Services and Lands (plaintiff) v. Larry John (defendant) and Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Company of Canada (intervenors) and Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Limited (intervenor)

(1996 St. J. No. 1025; 199601T1025)

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Newfoundland, as represented by the Minister of Government Services and Lands (plaintiff) v. Larry John (defendant) and Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Company of Canada (intervenors) and Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Limited (intervenor)

(1996 St. J. No. 1026; 199601T1026)

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Newfoundland, as represented by the Minister of Government Services and Lands (plaintiff) v. Ralph John (defendant) and Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Company of Canada (intervenors) and Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Limited (intervenor)

(1996 St. J. No. 1027; 199601T1027)

Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Newfoundland, as represented by the Minister of Government Services and Lands (plaintiff) v. Wilfred Drew (defendant) and Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Company of Canada (intervenors) and Corner Brook Pulp and Paper Limited (intervenor)

(1996 St. J. No. 1028; 199601T1028; 2003 NLSCTD 105)

Indexed As: Newfoundland v. Drew et al.

Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court

Trial Division

L.D. Barry, J.

July 17, 2003.

Summary:

The defendants were members of the Mi'kmaq reserve at Conne River, Nfld., who maintained hunting cabins in the Bay du Nord Wilderness Area. The Province, pursu­ant to s. 30(b) of the Lands Act, sought an order (1) declaring the defendants to be in wrongful possession of Crown lands and (2) for removal of the hunting cabins. The defendants claimed an aboriginal right to hunt, fish and trap in an area, including the Wilderness Area, comprising 21% of New­foundland. The claim was based on fishing, hunting and trapping in the area as a distinc­tive cultural feature in the period before contact with Europeans. The defendants also claimed treaty rights to hunt, fish and trap for sustenance and to earn a "moderate livelihood" over an area comprising 50% of Newfoundland, basing their claims on treaties in 1725, 1752, 1759 and 1761. The intervenors (pulp and paper companies) submitted that any aboriginal or treaty rights acquired by the Mi'kmaq had been extin­guished by legislation prior to Newfoundland becoming a province in 1949.

The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, held that the defend­ants failed to establish an aboriginal right to hunt, fish and trap in the territory claimed. The defendants' ancestors arrived in New­foundland some time after the first contact with Europeans, which was estimated to be around 1550. Accordingly, the European contact and influences precluded their hunt­ing, fishing and trapping practices from attaining aboriginal rights status. Even if the defendants' ancestors were present in New­foundland in the pre-contact period, it was not proved on a balance of probabilities that they hunted, fished or trapped in the area over which aboriginal rights were claimed. The court further held that there was no treaty rights established. The 1725 treaty did not apply to Newfoundland. It was restricted to Nova Scotia and, in any event, had been terminated by subsequent hostilities between the English and the Mi'kmaq. The 1752 treaty was limited to the Shubenacadie Band in Nova Scotia. It did not apply to New­foundland and it too was terminated by subsequent hostilities. The 1759 treaty did not deal with hunting or fishing rights. It was limited to an oath of allegiance to the British Crown. Finally, the 1761 treaty also did not apply to Newfoundland. The court held that because no aboriginal or treaty rights were established, it was unnecessary to determine the issue of extinguishment. The court granted an order under the Lands Act that the hunting cabins be removed, as the defendants were in wrongful possession of Crown lands.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 3

General - Duty owed to Indians by Crown - [See Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 506 ].

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 506

Rights - Constitution Act, 1982, s. 35 - Interpretation - Section 35(1) of the Con­stitution Act, 1982, recognized and affirmed existing aboriginal and treaty rights - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, stated that "a purposive analysis of s. 35(1) must be undertaken in the context of the general principles which apply to the legal rela­tionship between the Crown and aborigi­nals. Section 35(1) should be given a generous and liberal interpretation in favor of aboriginal peoples. The Crown had a fiduciary obligation to aboriginal peoples such that in dealings between the govern­ment and aboriginals the honour of the Crown is at stake. Where there is any doubt or ambiguity with regards to what falls within the scope of s. 35(1), such doubt or ambiguity must be resolved in favour of aboriginal peoples." - See para­graph 518.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 4408

Treaties and proclamations - General - Where applicable - The defendants were members of the Mi'kmaq reserve at Conne River, Nfld., who maintained hunting cabins in the Bay du Nord Wilderness Area - The Province, pursuant to s. 30(b) of the Lands Act, sought an order (1) declaring the defendants to be in wrongful possession of Crown lands and (2) for removal of the hunting cabins - The defen­dants claimed treaty rights to hunt, fish and trap to earn a "moderate livelihood" over an area comprising 50% of New­foundland, basing their claims on treaties in 1725, 1752, 1759 and 1761 - The New­foundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, held that there were no treaty rights established - The 1725 treaty did not apply to Newfoundland - It was restricted to Nova Scotia and, in any event, had been terminated by subsequent hostil­ities between the English and the Mi'kmaq - The 1752 treaty was limited to the Shu­benacadie Band in Nova Scotia - It did not apply to Newfoundland and it too was terminated by subsequent hostilities - The 1759 treaty did not deal with hunting or fishing rights - It was limited to an oath of allegiance to the British Crown - Finally, the 1761 treaty also did not apply to New­foundland - See paragraphs 681 to 1066.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 4409

Treaties and proclamations - Extinguishment - [See Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 6018 ].

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 4410

Treaties and proclamations - Interpretation - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, set out the principles of treaty interpretation as set out by the Supreme Court of Canada: "1. Aboriginal treaties constitute a unique type of agreement and attract special principles of interpretation. 2. Treaties should be liberally construed and ambiguities or doubtful expressions should be resolved in favour of the Aboriginal signatories. 3. The goal of treaty interpretation is to choose from among the various possible interpretations of common intention the one which best reconciles the interests of both parties at the time the treaty was signed. 4. In searching for the common intention of the parties, the integrity and honour of the Crown is presumed. 5. In determining the signatories' respective understanding and intentions, the court must be sensitive to the unique cultural and linguistic differences between the parties. 6. The words of the treaty must be given the sense which they would naturally have held for the parties at the time. 7. A technical or contractual interpretation of treaty wording should be avoided. 8. While construing the language generously, courts cannot alter the terms of the treaty by exceeding what 'is possible on the lan­guage' or realistic. 9. Treaty rights of aboriginal peoples must not be interpreted in a static or rigid way. They are not frozen at the date of signature. The inter­preting court must update treaty rights to provide for their modern exercise. This involves determining what modern prac­tices are reasonably incidental to the core treaty right in its modern context." - See paragraph 1000.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 6005

Aboriginal rights - General - Nature and scope of - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, stated that "an aboriginal right is defined as any custom, practice or tradition that is an integral or defining feature of a particu­lar culture that can be shown to have pre-contact origins" - Further, claimants must "establish on a balance of probabilities that their hunting, fishing or trapping practices, customs or traditions in the territory have continuity with practices, customs and traditions that existed before the [claim­ants'] ancestors had contact with Euro­peans. Where the practice, tradition or custom utilized European technology or arose solely as a response to European influence, that practice, tradition or custom will not meet the standard for recognition of an aboriginal right" - The court stated that "contact" with Europeans did not require "use, occupation or administration" of the territory by Europeans, nor did it require "sovereignty" - The time of "con­tact" was selected to ensure that aboriginal rights were in fact "aboriginal" and not influenced by European customs - The court stated that "'sovereignty' and 'con­tact' are two conceptually distinct ideas, with the latter applying to aboriginal rights and the former to aboriginal title" - See paragraphs 237, 485, 608 to 621.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 6012

Aboriginal rights - General - Evidence and proof - The defendants were members of the Mi'kmaq reserve at Conne River, Nfld., who maintained hunting cabins in the Bay du Nord Wilderness Area - The Province, pursuant to s. 30(b) of the Lands Act, sought an order (1) declaring the defendants to be in wrongful possession of Crown lands and (2) for removal of the hunting cabins - The defendants claimed an aboriginal right to hunt, fish and trap in an area, including the Wilderness Area, comprising 21% of Newfoundland - The claim was based on fishing, hunting and trapping in the area as a distinctive cultural feature in the period before contact with Europeans - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, held that the defendants failed to establish an aboriginal right to hunt, fish and trap in the territory claimed - The defendants' ancestors arrived in Newfoundland some time after first contact with Europeans (around 1550) - Accordingly, the European contact and influences precluded their hunting, fishing and trapping practices from attaining aboriginal rights status - Even if the defendants' ancestors were present in Newfoundland in the pre-contact period, they failed to prove on a balance of probabilities that they hunted, fished or trapped in the area over which aboriginal rights were claimed - See paragraphs 1 to 626.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 6012

Aboriginal rights - General - Evidence and proof - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, stated that the person claiming an aboriginal right had to establish such right on a balance of probabilities - The court stated that "in aboriginal cases, as in all cases, gaps in the evidentiary record are inevitable and what is required of the court is an assessment of the evidence in its totality in order to determine what is most probable. Second, the [claimants] ... bear the onus of proving the existence of a pre-contact aboriginal right and an interference with that right. It is not for the Province to 'disprove' an assumed practice or presence prior to contact. ... The lower standard of admissi­bility in aboriginal cases has no bearing on issues of onus, weight and sufficiency. The onus remains with the [claimants] to adduce the evidence necessary to meet their case on a balance of probabilities. ... where there is little evidence, the evidence that does exist must be compelling in order to establish the aboriginal right." - See paragraphs 526 to 555.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 6012

Aboriginal rights - General - Evidence and proof - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, discussed the evidentiary use of aboriginal oral his­tories and traditions in aboriginal rights cases - The court stated that "oral histories and traditions of aboriginal people can play an important role in illuminating distinctive cultural practices. ... in the reception of such evidence, 'due weight' must be given to the aboriginal perspective and this per­spective must be placed on 'equal footing' with other more familiar forms of evi­dence. 'Equal and due treatment' means, of course, that when oral evidence is pres­ented as proof of what actually happened in the past it must be treated with the same critical care as other historical sources." - See paragraphs 201 to 202.

Indians, Inuit and Métis - Topic 6018

Aboriginal rights - General - Extinguishment - The Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, stated that "parties invoking extinguishment ... have the onus of estab­lishing that an aboriginal right has been extinguished" - Legislation relied on to extinguish aboriginal rights must express a "clear and plain intention" to do so - The required "clear and plain intention" need not expressly state that aboriginal rights are being extinguished - Extinguishment could arise by necessary implication - Legislation must do more than regulate an activity to extinguish aboriginal rights - The court found it unnecessary to deter­mine the extinguishment issue, but did opine that "a question arises whether Crown legislation could demonstrate a clear and plain intention to extinguish Mi'kmaq rights when the Crown at the time did not consider such rights to exist in Newfoundland" - See paragraphs 1068 to 1159.

Cases Noticed:

R. v. Van der Peet (D.M.), [1996] 2 S.C.R. 507; 200 N.R. 1; 80 B.C.A.C. 81; 130 W.A.C. 81; 137 D.L.R.(4th) 289; [1996] 4 C.N.L.R. 177, appld. [para. 156, footnote 146].

Mitchell v. Minister of National Revenue, [2001] 1 S.C.R. 911; 269 N.R. 207; 199 D.L.R.(4th) 385, appld. [para. 201, foot­note 184].

R. v. Marshall (S.F.) et al. (2001), 191 N.S.R.(2d) 323; 596 A.P.R. 323 (Prov. Ct.), affd. (2002), 202 N.S.R.(2d) 42; 632 A.P.R. 42 (S.C.), appld. [para. 210, footnote 188].

R. v. Sparrow, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1075; 111 N.R. 241; 70 D.L.R.(4th) 385; [1990] 3 C.N.L.R. 160, refd to. [para. 237, foot­note 221].

R. v. Adams (G.W.), [1996] 3 S.C.R. 101; 202 N.R. 89; 138 D.L.R.(4th) 657; [1996] 4 C.N.L.R. 1, refd to. [para. 515, footnote 468].

R. v. Côté (F.) et al., [1996] 3 S.C.R. 139; 202 N.R. 161; 138 D.L.R.(4th) 385; [1996] 4 C.N.L.R. 26, refd to. [para. 515, footnote 468].

Delgamuukw et al. v. British Columbia et al., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1010; 220 N.R 161; 99 B.C.A.C. 161; 162 W.A.C. 161; 153 D.L.R.(4th) 193; [1998] 1 C.N.L.R. 14, refd to. [para. 515, footnote 468].

Miller v. Minister of Pensions, [1947] 2 All E.R. 372 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 526, footnote 478].

Bater v. Bater, [1950] 2 All E.R. 458 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 527, footnote 479].

R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 200, refd to. [para. 528, footnote 480].

Baker Lake (Hamlet) v. Canada (Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Develop­ment) (1979), 107 D.L.R.(3d) 513 (F.C.T.D.), refd to. [para. 529, footnote 481].

MacKay et al. v. Manitoba, [1989] 2 S.C.R. 357; 99 N.R. 116; 61 Man.R.(2d) 270; 61 D.L.R.(4th) 385, refd to. [para. 550, footnote 499].

Connolly v. Woolrich and Johnson et al. (1867), Superior Court of Quebec No. 902, refd to. [para. 591, footnote 524].

Mabo v. Queensland (1992), 175 C.L.R. 1 (Aust. H.C.), refd to. [para. 595, footnote 528].

de La Penha v. Newfoundland (1984), 46 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 26; 135 A.P.R. 26 (Nfld. T.D.), refd to. [para. 598, footnote 531].

R. v. N.T.C. Smokehouse Ltd., [1996] 2 S.C.R. 672; 200 N.R. 321; 80 B.C.A.C. 269; 130 W.A.C. 269; 137 D.L.R.(4th) 528, refd to. [para. 611, footnote 540].

R. v. Gladstone (W.) et al., [1996] 2 S.C.R. 723; 200 N.R. 189; 79 B.C.A.C. 161; 129 W.A.C. 161; 137 D.L.R.(4th) 648, refd to. [para. 611, footnote 540].

R. v. Kruger and Manuel, [1978] 1 S.C.R. 104; 15 N.R. 495; 75 D.L.R.(3d) 434, refd to. [para. 628, footnote 556].

R. v. Blais (E.L.J.) (2001), 156 Man.R.(2d) 53; 246 W.A.C. 53; 198 D.L.R.(4th) 220 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 631, footnote 559].

R. v. Powley (S.) et al. (2001), 141 O.A.C. 121; 196 D.L.R.(4th) 221 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 639, footnote 565].

Mathias et al. v. Canada et al. (2001), 207 F.T.R. 1 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 674, footnote 593].

Squamish Indian Band v. R. - see Mathias et al. v. Canada et al.

R. v. Ironeagle (H.), [2000] 2 C.N.L.R. 163; 186 Sask.R. 131 (Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 678, footnote 597].

R. v. Jacobs (C.J.) et al., [1998] B.C.T.C. Uned. I96; [1999] 3 C.N.L.R. 239 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 679, footnote 598].

R. v. Marshall (D.J.), Jr., [1999] 3 S.C.R. 456; 246 N.R. 83; 178 N.S.R.(2d) 201; 549 A.P.R. 201; 177 D.L.R.(4th) 513, refd to. [para. 682, footnote 599].

R. v. Sioui, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 1025; 109 N.R. 22; 30 Q.A.C. 280; 70 D.L.R.(4th) 427; [1990] 3 C.N.L.R. 127, refd to. [para. 786, footnote 658].

R. v. Marshall (D.J.), Jr., [1999] 3 S.C.R. 533; 247 N.R. 306; 179 N.S.R.(2d) 1; 553 A.P.R. 1; 179 D.L.R.(4th) 193, refd to. [para. 791, footnote 662].

R. v. Sundown (J.), [1999] 1 S.C.R. 393; 236 N.R. 251; 177 Sask.R. 1; 199 W.A.C. 1; 170 D.L.R.(4th) 385, refd to. [para. 802, footnote 675].

R. v. Wolfe, [1997] 1 C.N.L.R. 171 (B.C. Prov. Ct.), refd to. [para. 803, footnote 676].

R. v. Badger (W.C.) et al., [1996] 1 S.C.R. 771; 195 N.R. 1; 181 A.R. 321; 116 W.A.C. 321; 133 D.L.R.(4th) 324, refd to. [para. 873, footnote 734].

R. v. Simon, [1985] 2 S.C.R. 387; 62 N.R. 366; 71 N.S.R.(2d) 15; 171 A.P.R. 15; 24 D.L.R.(4th) 390, refd to. [para. 990, footnote 794].

Kitkatla Indian Band et al. v. British Col­umbia (Minister of Small Business, Tourism and Culture) et al. (2002), 286 N.R. 131; 165 B.C.A.C. 1; 270 W.A.C. 1 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 999, footnote 797].

R. v. Taylor (1981), 62 C.C.C.(2d) 227 (Ont. C.A.), leave to appeal refused [1981] 2 S.C.R. xi; 40 N.R. 539, refd to. [para. 1014, footnote 811].

R. v. Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs; Ex parte Indian Association of Alberta, [1982] 2 All E.R. 118 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 1052, footnote 841].

Osoyoos Indian Band v. Oliver (Town) et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 746; 278 N.R. 201; 160 B.C.A.C. 171; 261 W.A.C. 171; 206 D.L.R.(4th) 385, refd to. [para. 1072, footnote 853].

Delgamuukw et al. v. British Columbia et al. (1993), 30 B.C.A.C. 1; 49 W.A.C. 1; 104 D.L.R.(4th) 470 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 1074, footnote 855].

Campbell v. Hall (1774), 1 Cowp. 204; 98 E.R. 1045 (K.B.), refd to. [para. 1081, footnote 861].

Kielley v. Carson (1842), 4 Moo. P.C.C. 63; 13 E.R. 225 (P.C.), refd to. [para. 1084, footnote 863].

Jennings & Long v. Hunt & Beard, [1817-28] Nfld. L.R. 220, refd to. [para. 1084, footnote 863].

Walbank v. Ellis, [1846-53] Nfld. L.R. 400, refd to. [para. 1084, footnote 863].

Des Barres v. Morris, [1854-64] Nfld. L.R. 79, refd to. [para. 1085, footnote 864].

Hounsell v. Hounsell, [1947-49] Nfld. L.R. 310; 47 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 108; 139 A.P.R. 108 (Nfld. S.C.), refd to. [para. 1086, footnote 865].

Reid Newfoundland Co. et al. v. New­foundland (1982), 39 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 103; 111 A.P.R. 103 (Nfld. C.A.), refd to. [para. 1090, footnote 867].

Canadian Pacific Ltd. v. Paul et al., [1988] 2 S.C.R. 654; 89 N.R. 325; 91 N.B.R.(2d) 43; 232 A.P.R. 43; 53 D.L.R.(4th) 487, refd to. [para. 1091, footnote 868].

Newfoundland Reference Re Continental Shelf (1984), [1984] 1 S.C.R. 86; 51 N.R. 362; 5 D.L.R.(4th) 385, refd to. [para. 1096, footnote 872].

Phillips v. Glenwood Lumber Co., [1897-1903], 8 Nfld. L.R. vii (appendix) (P.C.), refd to. [para. 1114, footnote 883].

Bowaters (Nfld.) Ltd. v. Pelley Enterprises Ltd. and Pelley (1973), 5 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 233 (Nfld. S.C.), refd to. [para. 1114, footnote 883].

Newfoundland Power and Pulp Co. v. Anglo-Newfoundland Development Co., [1912-1920] Nfld. L.R. 7 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 1148, footnote 887].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Allaire, Bernard, Pelleteriers, Manchons et Chapeaux de Castor: Les Fourrures nord-américaines à Paris 1500-1632 (1999), p. 59 [para. 272, footnote 259].

Anger, Dorothy, Noywa'mkisk (Where the Sand Blows): Vignettes of Bay St. George Micmacs (1988), generally [para. 85, footnote 64].

Anspach, L.A., A History of the Island of Newfoundland (1819), pp. 142, 181 [para. 970, footnote 782].

Bartels, Dennis A., and Janzen, Olaf U., Micmac Migration to Western New­foundland (1990), Canadian Journal of Native Studies, vol. 10, No. 1, p. 78 [para. 349, footnote 344].

Biggar, Henry P., A Collection of Docu­ments Relating to Jacques Cartier and The Sieur De Roberval (1930), pp. 462, 463 [para. 378, footnote 368].

Biggar, Henry P., The Works of Samuel de Champlain (1922-1936), vol. 5, pp. 157 [para. 397, footnote 384]; 160 [paras. 92, 294, footnotes 72, 276]; 161 [para. 398, footnote 386].

Brodhead, John R., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of New York State (1748), generally [para. 131, footnote 115].

Brodhead, John R., Documents Relative to the Colonial History of the State of New York (1858), vol. 10, pp. 174, 175 [para. 508, footnote 464].

Cook, Ramsay, The Voyages of Jacques Cartier (1993), pp. 9 [para. 264, footnote 246]; 20 [paras. 176, 268, footnotes 162, 254]; 21 [para. 268, footnote 254]; 130, 131 [para. 376, footnote 364]; 161, 162 [para. 378, footnote 366].

Cormack, William Epps, Narrative of a Journey Across the Island of Newfound­land in 1822 (1928), pp. 57 [para. 464, footnote 445]; 66, 67 [para. 464, foot­note 446]; 71 [para. 941, footnote 769].

Cormack, William Epps, Narrative of a Journey Across the Island of Newfound­land in 1822, reproduced in James P. Howley, The Beothucks or Red Indians: The Aboriginal Inhabitants of Newfound­land (1915), p. 145 [para. 62, footnote 49].

Cowan, William, Papers of the Twenty-First Algonquin Conference (1990), generally [para. 78, footnote 61].

de la Morandière, Charles, Histoire de la pêche française de la morue dans l'Amérique septentrionale, des origines à 1789 (1962), vol. 1, pp. 387, 388 [para. 411, footnote 397]; 437 [para. 410, foot­note 396].

Denys, Nicolas, The Description and Natu­ral History of the Coasts of North America (Acadia) (c. 1672) (1968 Reprint), pp. 57 to 77 [para. 387, foot­note 376]; 62, 63 [paras. 296, 385, foot­notes 280, 374]; 64, 65 [para. 385, foot­note 375]; 196 [para. 194, footnote 178]; 403 [para. 181, footnote 167]; 440, 441 [para. 191, footnote 175]; 443 [para. 181, footnote 166].

Dièreville, Sieur de, Relation of the Voy­age to Port Royal in Acadia or New France (1933), generally [para. 295, footnote 279].

Downing, John, A Brief Narrative Con­cerning Newfoundland (1676), pp. 560 to 563 [paras. 436, 437, footnotes 416, 417].

Eccles, W.J., The Canadian Frontier 1534-1760 (1969), pp. 77, 78 [para. 590, foot­note 523].

Francis, R. Douglas, Jones, Richard and Smith, Donald B., Origins - Canadian History to Confederation (1988), p. 326 [paras. 369, 370, footnote 358].

Ganong, W.F., Crucial Maps in the Early Cartography and Place - Nomenclature of the Atlantic Coast of Canada (1964), pp. 75 [para. 170, footnote 157]; 81 [para. 171, footnote 158].

Hakluyt, Richard, Copy of Excerpt of Richard Hore's Voyage to Newfoundland and Beyond [1589], in David B. Quinn, New American World: A Documentary History of North America to 1612 (1979), vol. 1, c. 17, pp. 207, 208 [para. 10, footnote 2].

Hakluyt, Richard, The Principal Navigations Voyages Traffiques & Dis­coveries of the English Nation (1965), vol. 8, pp. 173, 174 [para. 375, footnote 361].

Halsbury's Laws of England (2nd Ed. 1933), vol. 2, pp. 7 [para. 1079, footnote 860]; 23 [para. 1094, footnote 871]; 37 [para. 1083, footnote 862].

Harris, R. Cole, Historical Atlas of Canada (1987), vol. 1, plate 23 [para. 312, foot­note 298].

Hart, Simon, The Prehistory of the New Netherland Company (1959), pp. 14 [paras. 360, 366, footnotes 351, 355]; 15 [para. 366, footnote 355].

Hewson, John, The Name Presentic and Other Ancient Micmac Toponyms (1981), Newfoundland Quarterly 77, No. 4, p. 11 [paras. 276, 394, footnotes 268, 380].

Hoffman, Bernard G., Account of a Voy­age Conducted in 1529 to the New World, Africa, Madagascar, and Sumatra, Translated from the Italian, with Notes and Comments (1963), Ethnohistory, vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 13, 14 [paras. 87, 169, footnotes 66, 156]; 17 [para. 35, footnote 21].

Hoffman, Bernard G., Cabot to Cartier: Sources for a Historical Ethnography of Northeastern North America 1497-1550 (1961), pp. 29, 31 [para. 167, footnotes 153, 154].

Hoffman, Bernard G., The Historical Eth­nography of the Micmac of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (1955), pp. 32 [para. 189, footnote 173]; 42 [para. 199, footnote 183]; 151 to 156 [para. 70, footnote 56]; 268-272 [para. 73, footnote 58].

Hogg, Peter W., Constitutional Law of Canada (2001 Looseleaf Update - Release 1), vol. 1, p. 2-16 [para. 1090, footnote 867].

Hogg, Peter W., Constitutional Law of Canada (4th Ed. 1997) (Looseleaf), para. 27.5(b) [para. 524, footnote 476].

Howley, James P., Reminiscences (1887), pp. 9, 12-14, 20, 41 [para. 65]; 48 [paras. 60, 65, footnotes 47, 51].

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Counsel:

Donald Burrage, Q.C., Edward Hearn, Q.C., and Deborah Paquette, for Her Majesty The Queen;

Robert M. Matthews and Shane G. McDonald, for the defendants;

James Thistle, Q.C., for the intervenor, Corner Brook Pulp & Paper Ltd.;

Colm St. R. Seviour, for the intervenors, Abitibi-Consolidated Inc. and Abitibi-Consolidated Co. of Canada.

This application was heard between Jan­uary 31, 2000, and December 2, 2002, at St. John's, Nfld. and Lab., before L.D. Barry, J., of the Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court, Trial Division, who delivered the following judgment on July 17, 2003.

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5 practice notes
  • R. v. Sappier; R. v. Gray, 2006 SCC 54
    • Canada
    • Supreme Court (Canada)
    • December 7, 2006
    ...[1973] S.C.R. 313; Newfoundland v. Drew (2006), 260 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1, 2006 NLCA 53, aff’g (2003), 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1, 2003 NLSCTD 105. Statutes and Regulations Cited Act further to amend Chapter 133, Title xxxiv, of the Revised Statutes, “Of trespasses on lands, private proper......
  • Joyce v. Nova Scotia (Attorney General), 2022 NSSC 22
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    • Supreme Court of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • January 27, 2022
    ...Newfoundland and Labrador. In Newfoundland (Minister of Government Services & Lands) v. Drew, 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1, 2003 NLSCTD 105 (N.L. T.D.), the trial judge concluded that the 1725-1726 Treaties have no legal force insofar as they were terminated by subsequent h......
  • R. v. Paul (A.) et al., 2013 NSPC 75
    • Canada
    • Nova Scotia Provincial Court of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • August 28, 2008
    ...1; 80 B.C.A.C. 81; 130 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 24]. Newfoundland v. Drew et al. (2003), 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1; 678 A.P.R. 1; 2003 NLSCTD 105, refd to. [para. Benoit et al. v. Canada (2003), 307 N.R. 1; 2003 FCA 236, refd to. [para. 107]. Samson Indian Band v. Canada (Minister of Ind......
  • The Challenges of Indigenous Oral History Since Mitchell v Minister of National Revenue
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    • January 1, 2021
    ...2002 CarswellOnt 3212 (WL Can) (Ont Sup Ct), rev’d on other grounds, 2003 CarswellOnt 4835 (WL Can) (ONCA) [ Anishnabe of Wauzhushk ]. 8 2003 NLSCTD 105 [ Drew ], aff’d 2006 NLCA 53, leave to appeal to SCC refused, 31750 (3 May 2007). 9 2009 SKQB 151 [ White Bear First Nations ]. 10 2014 ON......
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4 cases
  • R. v. Sappier; R. v. Gray, 2006 SCC 54
    • Canada
    • Supreme Court (Canada)
    • December 7, 2006
    ...[1973] S.C.R. 313; Newfoundland v. Drew (2006), 260 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1, 2006 NLCA 53, aff’g (2003), 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1, 2003 NLSCTD 105. Statutes and Regulations Cited Act further to amend Chapter 133, Title xxxiv, of the Revised Statutes, “Of trespasses on lands, private proper......
  • Joyce v. Nova Scotia (Attorney General), 2022 NSSC 22
    • Canada
    • Supreme Court of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • January 27, 2022
    ...Newfoundland and Labrador. In Newfoundland (Minister of Government Services & Lands) v. Drew, 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1, 2003 NLSCTD 105 (N.L. T.D.), the trial judge concluded that the 1725-1726 Treaties have no legal force insofar as they were terminated by subsequent h......
  • R. v. Paul (A.) et al., 2013 NSPC 75
    • Canada
    • Nova Scotia Provincial Court of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • August 28, 2008
    ...1; 80 B.C.A.C. 81; 130 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 24]. Newfoundland v. Drew et al. (2003), 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1; 678 A.P.R. 1; 2003 NLSCTD 105, refd to. [para. Benoit et al. v. Canada (2003), 307 N.R. 1; 2003 FCA 236, refd to. [para. 107]. Samson Indian Band v. Canada (Minister of Ind......
  • Labrador Metis Nation et al. v. Newfoundland and Labrador (Minister of Transportation and Works) et al., (2006) 258 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 257 (NLTD)
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    • Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)
    • July 19, 2006
    ... 338 W.A.C. 52 ; 2004 SCC 73 , refd to. [para. 5]. Newfoundland v. Drew et al. (2003) , 228 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1 ; 678 A.P.R. 1 ; 2003 NLSCTD 105, refd to. [para. 43]. R. v. Jacobs (C.J.) et al., [1998] B.C.T.C. Uned. I96 ; [1999] 3 C.N.L.R. 239 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 50]. Anishin......
1 books & journal articles
  • The Challenges of Indigenous Oral History Since Mitchell v Minister of National Revenue
    • Canada
    • Appeal: Review of Current Law and Law Reform No. 26, January 2021
    • January 1, 2021
    ...2002 CarswellOnt 3212 (WL Can) (Ont Sup Ct), rev’d on other grounds, 2003 CarswellOnt 4835 (WL Can) (ONCA) [ Anishnabe of Wauzhushk ]. 8 2003 NLSCTD 105 [ Drew ], aff’d 2006 NLCA 53, leave to appeal to SCC refused, 31750 (3 May 2007). 9 2009 SKQB 151 [ White Bear First Nations ]. 10 2014 ON......

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