Penner v. Mitchell, (1978) 10 A.R. 555 (CA)

JudgeSinclair, Prowse and Haddad, JJ.A.
CourtCourt of Appeal (Alberta)
Case DateJune 22, 1978
Citations(1978), 10 A.R. 555 (CA);1978 ALTASCAD 201;89 DLR (3d) 343;[1978] 5 WWR 328;10 AR 555;6 CCLT 132;[1978] CarswellAlta 255;[1978] AJ No 591 (QL)

Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555 (CA)

MLB headnote and full text

Penner v. Mitchell

Indexed As: Penner v. Mitchell

Alberta Supreme Court

Appellate Division

Sinclair, Prowse and Haddad, JJ.A.

June 22, 1978.

Summary:

This case arose out of a claim for damages for personal injuries arising out of a motor vehicle accident. The trial judge allowed the plaintiff's action and awarded the plaintiff special and general damages for personal injuries. After the accident but before trial the plaintiff, while disabled from injuries suffered in the accident, was hospitalized due to an unrelated heart problem. The trial judge disregarded the heart problem in awarding the plaintiff special damages for loss of income from the date of the accident to the date of trial. The defendant appealed to the Alberta Court of Appeal on the ground, inter alia, that the trial judge erred in disregarding the heart problem in awarding the plaintiff special damages for loss of income.

The Alberta Court of Appeal allowed the appeal and reduced the plaintiff's special damage award for loss of income. The Court of Appeal held that the defendant was entitled to benefit from the happening of the heart problem because it was a nonculpable contingency which occurred prior to trial.

Damages - Topic 587

Limits of compensatory damages - Intervening causes - Non-culpable accidents or events occurring prior to trial - The plaintiff was injured and disabled as a result of a motor vehicle accident caused by the defendant's negligence - After the accident but before trial the plaintiff, while disabled from injuries suffered in the accident, was hospitalized due to an unrelated heart problem - The trial judge disregarded the heart problem in awarding the plaintiff special damages for loss of income (because the heart problem did not delay the plaintiff's recovery from injuries sustained in the motor vehicle accident) - The Alberta Court of Appeal reduced the trial judge's award of special damages for loss of income and held that the disabling heart problem should have been taken into account by the trial judge - The Court of Appeal held that the defendant could benefit from the happening of the heart problem because it was a nonculpable contingency which occurred prior to trial.

Cases Noticed:

Baker v. Willoughby, [1970] A.C. 467, not folld. [para. 6].

Andrews v. Grand & Toy Alberta Ltd. and Anderson, 19 N.R. 50, folld. [para. 10].

Livingstone v. Rawyards Coal Co. (1880), 5 A.C. 25, refd to. [para. 12].

Liesbosch Dredger v. Edison S.S. (owners), [1933] A.C. 449, refd to. [para. 13].

Admiralty Commissioners v. S.S. Chekiang, [1926] A.C. 637, refd to. [para. 15].

The Kingsway, [1918] 344, folld. [para. 29].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Williams, Glanville, Causation in the Law, (1961) Cambridge Law Journal 63, p. 76 [para. 30].

Wagner, Ulrich, Successive Causes and Quantum of Damages in Personal Injury Cases, 10 Osgoode Hall Law Journal 369 [para. 31].

MacGregor, Harvey, Variations on an Enigma, (1970), 33 Modern Law Review 378 [para. 31].

Counsel:

H.O. Moffett, for the appellant;

L.W. Hendrickson, for the respondent.

This appeal was heard by SINCLAIR, PROWSE and HADDAD, JJ.A.

The judgment of the Alberta Court of Appeal was delivered by PROWSE, J.A., at Edmonton, Alberta on June 22, 1978.

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49 practice notes
  • Hetu v. Traff et al., (1999) 247 A.R. 278 (QB)
    • Canada
    • Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta (Canada)
    • June 25, 1999
    ...refd to. [para. 4]. McLaren v. Schwalbe (1994), 148 A.R. 1; 16 Alta. L.R.(3d) 108 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 4]. Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555; 89 D.L.R.(3d) 343 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 4]. Levesque v. Comeau, [1970] S.C.R. 1010, refd to. [para. 4]. Fobel v. Dean and MacDonald (1991),......
  • Phillip v. Whitecourt General Hospital et al., (2004) 359 A.R. 259 (QB)
    • Canada
    • Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta (Canada)
    • October 21, 2004
    ...footnote 85]. Wickberg v. Patterson (1997), 196 A.R. 43; 141 W.A.C. 43 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 147, footnote 87]. Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 150, footnote Santoro v. Raban (2000), 265 A.R. 1; 2000 ABQB 285, refd to. [para. 151, footnote 89]. Rhine v. Mill......
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive Remedies: the Law of Damages. Second Edition Part Three
    • September 8, 2008
    ...P.2d 109 (Okla. Sup. Ct. 1963) ................................................................... 40–41, 93– 95 Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555, 89 D.L.R. (3d) 343, [1978] 5 W.W.R. 328 (C.A.) ............................................................................... 342– 43 Pen......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Remedies: The Law of Damages. Third Edition Limiting Principles
    • June 21, 2014
    ...Limited v Bow Valley Iran Limited & Oths, [2009] UKPC 45 ...................................................... 286 Penner v Mitchell (1978), 10 AR 555, 89 DLR (3d) 343, [1978] 5 WWR 328 (CA) ............................................................................. 389 Penso v Solowan (......
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41 cases
  • Hetu v. Traff et al., (1999) 247 A.R. 278 (QB)
    • Canada
    • Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta (Canada)
    • June 25, 1999
    ...refd to. [para. 4]. McLaren v. Schwalbe (1994), 148 A.R. 1; 16 Alta. L.R.(3d) 108 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 4]. Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555; 89 D.L.R.(3d) 343 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 4]. Levesque v. Comeau, [1970] S.C.R. 1010, refd to. [para. 4]. Fobel v. Dean and MacDonald (1991),......
  • Phillip v. Whitecourt General Hospital et al., (2004) 359 A.R. 259 (QB)
    • Canada
    • Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta (Canada)
    • October 21, 2004
    ...footnote 85]. Wickberg v. Patterson (1997), 196 A.R. 43; 141 W.A.C. 43 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 147, footnote 87]. Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 150, footnote Santoro v. Raban (2000), 265 A.R. 1; 2000 ABQB 285, refd to. [para. 151, footnote 89]. Rhine v. Mill......
  • Kozak v. Funk; Kozak v. Nutter, (1995) 135 Sask.R. 81 (QB)
    • Canada
    • Saskatchewan Court of Queen's Bench of Saskatchewan (Canada)
    • September 7, 1995
    ...[paras. 47, 49]. Berns et al. v. Campbell et al. (1974), 59 D.L.R.(3d) 44 (Ont. H.C.), refd to. [paras. 48, 49]. Penner v. Mitchell, [1978] 5 W.W.R. 328; 10 A.R. 555; 89 D.L.R.(3d) 343 (C.A.), refd to. [paras. 50, 67, 70]. Baker v. Willoughby, [1970] A.C. 467 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 50]. R.......
  • Dushynski v. Rumsey, 2001 ABQB 513
    • Canada
    • Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta (Canada)
    • May 5, 2001
    ...[para. 159, footnote 11]. Jobling v. Associated Dairies Ltd., [1981] 2 All E.R. 752 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 167]. Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555; 89 D.L.R.(3d) 343 (C.A.), refd to. [para. Simmie v. Parker and Unger (1994), 164 A.R. 178 (Q.B.), affd. (1996), 187 A.R. 307; 127 W.A.C. ......
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8 books & journal articles
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive Remedies: the Law of Damages. Second Edition Part Three
    • September 8, 2008
    ...P.2d 109 (Okla. Sup. Ct. 1963) ................................................................... 40–41, 93– 95 Penner v. Mitchell (1978), 10 A.R. 555, 89 D.L.R. (3d) 343, [1978] 5 W.W.R. 328 (C.A.) ............................................................................... 342– 43 Pen......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Remedies: The Law of Damages. Third Edition Limiting Principles
    • June 21, 2014
    ...Limited v Bow Valley Iran Limited & Oths, [2009] UKPC 45 ...................................................... 286 Penner v Mitchell (1978), 10 AR 555, 89 DLR (3d) 343, [1978] 5 WWR 328 (CA) ............................................................................. 389 Penso v Solowan (......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Emond Casebooks Tort Law: Cases and Materials, 5th Edition
    • May 8, 2019
    ...348 Paxton v Ramji , 2008 ONCA 697, 92 OR (3d) 401 ...................................... 184 Penner v Mitchell (1978), 89 DLR (3d) 343 (Alta CA) ..................................... 274 Polemis and Furness, Withy & Co, In Re , [1921] 3 KB 560 (CA) ........................... 210 Powell v ......
  • Certainty and Causation
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Remedies: The Law of Damages. Third Edition Limiting Principles
    • June 21, 2014
    ...to determine. Once it is determined that the injuries from the multiple events are indivisible in the sense that the subsequent 91 (1978), 10 AR 555 (CA) [ Penner ]. 92 [1981] 2 All ER 752 (HL) [ Jobling ]. 93 (1996), 18 BCLR (3d) 141 (CA). REMEDIES: THE LAW OF DAMAGES 390 event aggravated ......
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