R. v. Skeir (C.W.), 2005 NSCA 86

JudgeMacDonald, C.J.N.S., Cromwell and Fichaud, JJ.A.
CourtCourt of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
Case DateMay 11, 2005
JurisdictionNova Scotia
Citations2005 NSCA 86;(2005), 233 N.S.R.(2d) 298 (CA)

R. v. Skeir (C.W.) (2005), 233 N.S.R.(2d) 298 (CA);

 739 A.P.R. 298

MLB headnote and full text

Temp. Cite: [2005] N.S.R.(2d) TBEd. JN.015

Carl Wendell Skeir (appellant) v. Her Majesty the Queen (respondent)

(CAC 237148; 2005 NSCA 86)

Indexed As: R. v. Skeir (C.W.)

Nova Scotia Court of Appeal

MacDonald, C.J.N.S., Cromwell and Fichaud, JJ.A.

June 1, 2005.

Summary:

A private security guard arrested the accused for shoplifting. The accused gave a statement to the security guard, who turned him over to the police. The police charged the accused with theft. At trial, the accused challenged the admissibility of his statement on the basis that the arrest by the private security guard engaged his right to counsel and the security guard failed to properly inform him of that right. The trial judge held that the security guard was not subject to the Charter and, even if he was, the accused's statement should not be excluded under s. 24(2) of the Charter. The accused appealed.

The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal dismissed the appeal.

Civil Rights - Topic 4602

Right to counsel - General - Denial of - Evidence taken inadmissible - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal discussed the test for determining whether evidence obtained as a result of a breach of the s. 10(b) right to counsel should be excluded under s. 24(2) of the Charter - See paragraphs 22 to 45.

Civil Rights - Topic 4613.1

Right to counsel - General - Citizen's arrest - Section 494 of the Criminal Code permitted a private individual to arrest someone whom he found committing an indictable offence - A private security guard (Novelli) arrested the accused for shoplifting under s. 494 - The accused gave a statement to Novelli, who turned the accused over to the police - The police charged the accused with theft - At trial, the accused challenged the admissibility of his statement on the basis that the arrest by Novelli engaged his right to counsel and Novelli failed to properly inform him of that right - The Nova Scotia Court of Appeal affirmed that the Charter did not apply to Novelli - There had been neither an express delegation nor an abandonment in whole or part, of the police arrest power to private security officers such as Novelli - See paragraphs 10 to 21.

Civil Rights - Topic 8311

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - General - Application - Nongovernmental or private interference - [See Civil Rights - Topic 4613.1 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 8368

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Denial of rights - Remedies - Exclusion of evidence - [See Civil Rights - Topic 4602 ].

Cases Noticed:

R. v. Law - see R. v. 2821109 Canada Inc. et al.

R. v. 2821109 Canada Inc. et al., [2002] 1 S.C.R. 227; 281 N.R. 267; 245 N.B.R.(2d) 270; 636 A.P.R. 270, refd to. [para. 9].

R. v. Buhay (M.A.), [2003] 1 S.C.R. 631; 305 N.R. 158; 177 Man.R.(2d) 72; 304 W.A.C. 72; 2003 SCC 30, appld. [para. 9].

R. v. Grant (D.), [1993] 3 S.C.R. 223; 159 N.R. 161; 35 B.C.A.C. 1; 57 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 9].

R. v. Delorey (J.L.) (2004), 226 N.S.R.(2d) 59; 714 A.P.R. 59; 2004 NSCA 95, refd to. [para. 9].

R. v. Scott (J.M.) (2004), 228 N.S.R.(2d) 203; 723 A.P.R. 203; 2004 NSCA 141, refd to. [para. 9].

Eldridge et al. v. British Columbia (Attorney General) et al., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 624; 218 N.R. 161; 96 B.C.A.C. 81; 155 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 11].

R. v. Broyles, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 595; 131 N.R. 118; 120 A.R. 189; 8 W.A.C. 189, refd to. [para. 13].

R. v. M.R.M., [1998] 3 S.C.R. 393; 233 N.R. 1; 171 N.S.R.(2d) 125; 519 A.P.R. 125, refd to. [para. 13].

R. v. Lerke (1986), 67 A.R. 390; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 129 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 15].

R. v. A.M.J. (1999), 125 B.C.A.C. 238; 204 W.A.C. 238; 137 C.C.C.(3d) 213 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 15].

R. v. Caucci, [1995] A.Q. No. 821 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 15].

R. v. Sawler (1991), 104 N.S.R.(2d) 408; 283 A.P.R. 408 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 15].

R. v. N.S., [2004] O.J. No. 290 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 18].

Blencoe v. Human Rights Commission (B.C.), [2000] 2 S.C.R. 307; 260 N.R. 1; 141 B.C.A.C. 161; 231 W.A.C. 161; 2000 SCC 44, refd to. [para. 19].

R. v. Asante-Mensah (D.), [2003] 2 S.C.R. 3; 306 N.R. 289; 175 O.A.C. 317, refd to. [para. 20].

R. v. Brydges, [1990] 1 S.C.R. 190; 103 N.R. 282; 104 A.R. 124, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Matheson (R.N.), [1994] 3 S.C.R. 328; 172 N.R. 108; 123 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 271; 382 A.P.R. 271, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Bartle (K.), [1994] 3 S.C.R. 173; 172 N.R. 1; 74 O.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Latimer (R.W.), [1997] 1 S.C.R. 217; 207 N.R. 215; 152 Sask.R. 1; 140 W.A.C. 1, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Harper, [1994] 3 S.C.R. 343; 172 N.R. 91; 97 Man.R.(2d) 1; 79 W.A.C. 1; 92 C.C.C.(3d) 423, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Nickerson (M.I.) (2001), 198 N.S.R.(2d) 251; 621 A.P.R. 251; 2001 NSCA 161, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Chisholm (C.B.) (2001), 191 N.S.R.(2d) 369; 596 A.P.R. 369; 2001 NSCA 32, refd to. [para. 24].

R. v. Strachan, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 980; 90 N.R. 273, refd to. [para. 28].

R. v. Elshaw, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 24; 128 N.R. 241; 3 B.C.A.C. 81; 7 W.A.C. 81, refd to. [para. 28].

R. v. Therens, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 613; 59 N.R. 122; 40 Sask.R. 122; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 481, refd to. [para. 30].

R. v. Burlingham (T.W.), [1995] 2 S.C.R. 206; 181 N.R. 1; 58 B.C.A.C. 161; 96 W.A.C. 161, refd to. [para. 30].

R. v. Goldhart (W.), [1996] 2 S.C.R. 463; 198 N.R. 321; 92 O.A.C. 161; 107 C.C.C.(3d) 481, refd to. [para. 30].

R. v. Collins, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 265; 74 N.R. 276, refd to. [para. 31].

R. v. Stillman (W.W.D.), [1997] 1 S.C.R. 607; 209 N.R. 81; 185 N.B.R.(2d) 1; 472 A.P.R. 1, refd to. [para. 34].

R. v. C.J.L. (2004), 190 Man.R.(2d) 177; 335 W.A.C. 177; 2004 MBCA 126, refd to. [para. 34].

R. v. Caputo (E.) (1997), 98 O.A.C. 30; 114 C.C.C.(3d) 1 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 34].

Yousef v. United States of America (2003), 174 O.A.C. 286 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 34].

R. v. Russell (L.G.) (1996), 141 Sask.R. 152; 114 W.A.C. 152 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 34].

R. v. Black, [1989] 2 S.C.R. 138; 98 N.R. 281; 93 N.S.R.(2d) 35; 242 A.P.R. 35, refd to. [para. 36].

R. v. Hebert, [1990] 2 S.C.R. 151; 110 N.R. 1; 77 C.R.(3d) 145; 57 C.C.C.(3d) 1, refd to. [para. 42].

R. v. Whynder (K.A.) (1996), 149 N.S.R.(2d) 241; 432 A.P.R. 241 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 42].

R. v. Duguay (R.J.) (1998), 113 O.A.C. 384 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 43].

R. v. Dolynchuk (E.N.) (2004), 184 Man.R.(2d) 71; 318 W.A.C. 71; 2004 MBCA 45, refd to. [para. 43].

Counsel:

Roger Burrill, for the appellant;

William D. Delaney and Richard B. Miller, for the respondent.

This appeal was heard in Halifax, N.S., on May 11, 2005, by MacDonald, C.J.N.S., Cromwell and Fichaud, JJ.A., of the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal. Fichaud, J.A., delivered the following decision for the court on June 1, 2005.

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9 practice notes
  • Nature of the Interaction Between Police and Individuals
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • June 22, 2017
    ...an argument that section 10 does not apply when citizens merely detain, but does apply when they arrest. 318 See, for example, R v Skeir , 2005 NSCA 86. See also R v S(N) , [2004] OJ No 290 (Ont CA), which found that the particular security guards in question in the case were not state agen......
  • The Impact of the Charter
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • June 22, 2017
    ...had not been overruled by the Supreme Court of Canada: 256 Ibid at 134. 257 Ibid at 136. 258 R v J (AM) , 1999 BCCA 366. 259 R v Skeir , 2005 NSCA 86. 260 There are several lower court judgments dealing with these issues which find that the Charter does not apply. See R v Karook , [2001] QJ......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • June 22, 2017
    ...R v Sirois, [1999] JQ no 1079 (CA) ..................................................................... 253 R v Skeir, 2005 NSCA 86 .................................................................................... 350 R v Smellie (1994), 53 BCAC 202, 95 CCC (3d) 9, [1994] BCJ No 2850 (C......
  • R. v. Farrell (D.M.),
    • Canada
    • Court of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • November 25, 2008
    ...To the same effect from this court: R. v. Delorey , [2004] N.S.J. No. 297; 2004 NSCA 95, at para. 34; R. v. Skier , [2005] N.S.J. No. 209; 2005 NSCA 86, at para. 9. "27 In R. v. Law , [2002] 1 S.C.R. 227, at para. 33, Justice Bastarache for the Court summarized the principles under s. 24(2)......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
6 cases
  • R. v. Farrell (D.M.),
    • Canada
    • Court of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • November 25, 2008
    ...To the same effect from this court: R. v. Delorey , [2004] N.S.J. No. 297; 2004 NSCA 95, at para. 34; R. v. Skier , [2005] N.S.J. No. 209; 2005 NSCA 86, at para. 9. "27 In R. v. Law , [2002] 1 S.C.R. 227, at para. 33, Justice Bastarache for the Court summarized the principles under s. 24(2)......
  • R. v. MacEachern (S.B.), (2007) 255 N.S.R.(2d) 180 (CA)
    • Canada
    • Nova Scotia Court of Appeal of Nova Scotia (Canada)
    • June 8, 2007
    ...[para. 25]. R. v. Delorey (J.L.) (2004), 226 N.S.R.(2d) 59; 714 A.P.R. 59; 2004 NSCA 95, refd to. [para. 26]. R. v. Skeir (C.W.) (2005), 233 N.S.R.(2d) 298; 739 A.P.R. 298; 2005 NSCA 86, refd to. [para. R. v. 2821109 Canada Inc. et al., [2002] 1 S.C.R. 227; 281 N.R. 267; 245 N.B.R.(2d) 270;......
  • R. v. Dell (B.M.), (2005) 367 A.R. 279 (CA)
    • Canada
    • Court of Appeal (Alberta)
    • May 19, 2005
    ...R. v. A.M.J. (1999), 125 B.C.A.C. 238; 204 W.A.C. 238; 137 C.C.C.(3d) 213; 1999 BCCA 366, refd to. [para. 12]. R. v. Skeir (C.W.) (2005), 233 N.S.R.(2d) 298; 739 A.P.R. 298; 2005 NSCA 86, refd to. [para. R. v. Dean (1992), 127 A.R. 376; 20 W.A.C. 376 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 15]. R. v. Chang......
  • R. v. Castor (R.L.), (2006) 395 A.R. 270 (PC)
    • Canada
    • Provincial Court of Alberta (Canada)
    • March 3, 2006
    ...137 C.C.C.(3d) 213 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 21]. R. v. N.S., [2004] O.J. No. 290 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 21]. R. v. Skeir (C.W.) (2005), 233 N.S.R.(2d) 298; 739 A.P.R. 298 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 21]. R. v. Shafie (1989), 31 O.A.C. 362; 47 C.C.C.(3d) 27 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 22]. R. v. Bro......
  • Request a trial to view additional results
3 books & journal articles
  • Nature of the Interaction Between Police and Individuals
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • June 22, 2017
    ...an argument that section 10 does not apply when citizens merely detain, but does apply when they arrest. 318 See, for example, R v Skeir , 2005 NSCA 86. See also R v S(N) , [2004] OJ No 290 (Ont CA), which found that the particular security guards in question in the case were not state agen......
  • The Impact of the Charter
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • June 22, 2017
    ...had not been overruled by the Supreme Court of Canada: 256 Ibid at 134. 257 Ibid at 136. 258 R v J (AM) , 1999 BCCA 366. 259 R v Skeir , 2005 NSCA 86. 260 There are several lower court judgments dealing with these issues which find that the Charter does not apply. See R v Karook , [2001] QJ......
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Detention and Arrest. Second Edition
    • June 22, 2017
    ...R v Sirois, [1999] JQ no 1079 (CA) ..................................................................... 253 R v Skeir, 2005 NSCA 86 .................................................................................... 350 R v Smellie (1994), 53 BCAC 202, 95 CCC (3d) 9, [1994] BCJ No 2850 (C......

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