Reference Re Compulsory Arbitration, (1987) 74 N.R. 99 (SCC)

JudgeDickson, C.J.C., Beetz, McIntyre, Chouinard, Wilson, Le Dain and La Forest, JJ.
CourtSupreme Court of Canada
Case DateApril 09, 1987
JurisdictionCanada (Federal)
Citations(1987), 74 N.R. 99 (SCC);38 DLR (4th) 161;28 CRR 305;1987 CanLII 88 (SCC);[1987] 3 WWR 577;78 AR 1;[1987] ACS no 10;AZ-87111020;[1987] SCJ No 10 (QL);[1987] 1 SCR 313;51 Alta LR (2d) 97;74 NR 99

Ref. Re Compulsory Arbitration (1987), 74 N.R. 99 (SCC)

MLB headnote and full text

[French language version follows English language version]

[La version française vient à la suite de la version anglaise]

.........................

Reference Re Compulsory Arbitration

(No. 19234)

Indexed As: Reference Re Compulsory Arbitration

Supreme Court of Canada

Dickson, C.J.C., Beetz, McIntyre, Chouinard, Wilson, Le Dain and La Forest, JJ.

April 9, 1987.

Summary:

The Province of Alberta referred seven questions for advisory opinions pursuant to s. 27(1) of the Judicature Act. The first three questions were whether specific provisions of the Public Service Employee Relations Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. P- 33, the Labour Relations Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. L-1.1, and the Police Officers Collective Bargaining Act, S.A. 1983, c. P- 12.05, which prohibited strikes and lockouts in the public service in the process of collective bargaining and imposed compulsory arbitration in their place, were inconsistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The next three questions were whether legislation requiring an arbitrator acting under the compulsory arbitration legislation to consider certain factors in making the arbitration award, and particularly government fiscal policy, was inconsistent with the Charter. The seventh question was whether the Constitution Act limited the right of the Crown to exclude certain specified classes of employees from collective bargaining units.

The Alberta Court of Appeal in a judgment reported [1985] 2 W.W.R. 289; 57 A.R. 268; 16 D.L.R.(4th) 359; 35 Alta. L.R.(2d) 124; 85 C.L.L.C. 14,027, answered the first three questions in the negative. The court held that replacing a union's right to strike with compulsory arbitration did not infringe the right to freedom of association under s. 2(d) of the Charter. The court held that there was no need to deal with questions four to six and refused to answer question seven. The interested unions appealed.

The Supreme Court of Canada per McIntyre, J., with Le Dain, Beetz and La Forest, JJ., concurring, dismissed the appeal and answered the first six questions in the negative and refused to answer question seven. The court held that the provisions prohibiting strikes and lockouts and imposing compulsory arbitration did not violate the freedom of association in s. 2(d) of the Charter.

Dickson, C.J.C., with Wilson, J., concurring, dissented.

Civil Rights - Topic 2103

Freedom of association - General - Scope of right - The Supreme Court of Canada discussed six possible approaches to construction of the scope of freedom of association before finally ruling that under s. 2(d) of the Charter "protection will attach to the exercise in association of such rights as have Charter protection when exercised by the individual. Furthermore, freedom of association means the freedom to associate for the purposes of activities which are lawful when performed alone. But, since the fact of association will not by itself confer additional rights on individuals, the association does not acquire a constitutionally guaranteed freedom to do what is unlawful for the individual." - See paragraphs 18 to 37.

Civil Rights - Topic 2144

Freedom of association - Limitations on - Right to strike - Amendments to the Public Service Employee Relations Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. P-33, the Labour Relations Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. L-1.1, and the Police Officers Collective Bargaining Act, S.A. 1983, c. P-12.05, prohibited strikes and lockouts in the public service and imposed compulsory arbitration in their place - The Supreme Court of Canada held that the legislation did not infringe the union's right to freedom of association under s. 2(d) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Civil Rights - Topic 8348

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Application - Exceptions - Reasonable limits prescribed by law - Charter, s. 1 - Dickson, C.J.C., of the Supreme Court of Canada, in a dissenting judgment discussed the considerations in determining whether a limit on a freedom or right is reasonable and demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society - See paragraphs 145 to 171.

Civil Rights - Topic 8462

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Interpretation - Purposive test - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that the meaning of a right or freedom guaranteed by the Charter must be ascertained by an analysis of the purpose of the guarantee - See paragraphs 10 to 11, 127.

Civil Rights - Topic 8468

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Interpretation - Pre-Charter law - The Supreme Court of Canada stated that a guarantee in the Charter, such as that of freedom of association, must be construed with reference to the constitutional text and to the nature, history, traditions and social philosophies of our society - See paragraph 29.

Civil Rights - Topic 8469

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Interpretation - U.S. experience - The Supreme Court of Canada considered the American experience in construing the scope of freedom of association under s. 2(d) of the Charter - See paragraphs 12 to 23, 93 to 101.

Civil Rights - Topic 8470

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Interpretation - International law - The Supreme Court of Canada considered international law in construing the scope of freedom of association under s. 2(d) of the Charter - See paragraphs 102 to 117.

Cases Noticed:

Southam Inc. v. Hunter, [1984] 2 S.C.R. 145; 55 N.R. 241; 55 A.R. 291; 27 B.L.R. 297; 33 Alta. L.R.(2d) 193; 9 C.R.R. 355; 14 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 11 D.L.R.(4th) 641; 2 C.P.R.(2d) 1; [1984] 6 W.W.R. 577; 41 C.R.(3d) 97; 84 D.T.C. 6467, appld. [paras. 10, 62].

R. v. Big M Drug Mart Ltd., [1985] 1 S.C.R. 295; 58 N.R. 81; 60 A.R. 161; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 18 D.L.R.(4th) 321; [1985] 3 W.W.R. 481, appld. [paras. 10, 104].

Collymore v. Attorney General, [1970] A.C. 538, appld. [paras. 18, 75].

Dolphin Delivery Ltd. v. Retail Whole sale & Department Store Union, Local 580 (1984), 10 D.L.R.(4th) 198, affd. [1986] 2 S.C.R. 573; 71 N.R. 83, appld. [para. 19].

Public Service Alliance of Canada v. Canada, [1984] 2 F.C. 562; 11 D.L.R. (4th) 337; 9 C.R.R. 248, affd. [1984] 2 F.C. 889; 55 N.R. 285; 11 D.L.R. (4th) 387; 11 C.R.R. 97; 84 C.L.L.C. 14,053 (F.C.A.), affd. 75 N.R. 161 (S.C.C.), refd to. [paras. 20, 83].

Prime v. Manitoba Labour Board (1983), 25 Man.R.(2d) 85; 3 D.L.R.(4th) 74 (Man. Q.B.), revd. 28 Man.R.(2d) 234; 8 D.L.R.(4th) 641 (C.A.), refd to. [paras. 20, 84].

Halifax Police Officers and NCO's Association v. City of Halifax (1984), 64 N.S.R.(2d) 368; 143 A.P.R. 368; 11 C.R.R. 358 (N.S.T.D.), refd to. [paras. 20, 84].

Roberts v. United States Jaycees (1984), 468 U.S. 609, consd. [para. 21].

Retail, Wholesale & Department Store Union, Locals 544, 496, 635 and 955 and Government of Saskatchewan, Re (1985), 39 Sask.R. 193; 19 D.L.R. (4th) 609, consd. [paras. 23, 88].

Black v. Law Society of Alberta, [1986] 3 W.W.R. 590; 68 A.R. 259 (Alta. C.A.), consd. [paras. 24, 92].

Service Employees' International Union, Local 204, and Broadway Manor Nursing Home, Re (1983), 44 O.R.(2d) 392, not folld. [para. 25].

Canadian Pacific Railway Co. v. Zambri, [1962] S.C.R. 609, consd. [paras. 37, 141].

Canadian Air Line Pilots Ass'n v. Eastern Provincial Airways Ltd. (1983), 5 L.R.B.R. (N.S.) 368, refd to. [para. 37].

Ainscough v. McGavin Toastmaster Ltd., [1976] 1 S.C.R. 718; 4 N.R. 618, consd. [para. 38].

N.L.R.B. v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. (1937), 301 U.S. 1, consd. [para. 69].

Collymore v. Attorney General (1967), 12 W.I.R. 5, affd. [1970] A.C. 538, consd. [para. 77].

Newfoundland Association of Public Employees v. Newfoundland (1985), 53 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 1; 156 A.P.R. 1; 14 C.R.R. 193 (Nfld. S.C.T.D.), consd. [para. 84].

Chung and Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers' Union, Re (1986), 54 O.R.(2d) 650, consd. [para. 87].

Healy v. James (1972), 408 U.S. 169, consd. [para. 94].

Baird v. State Bar of Arizona (1971), 401 U.S. 1, consd. [para. 94].

NAACP v. Button (1963), 371 U.S. 415, consd. [para. 94].

Louisiana ex rel. Gremillion v. NAACP (1961), 366 U.S. 293, consd. [para. 94].

NAACP v. Alabama ex rel. Patterson (1958), 357 U.S. 449, consd. [para. 94].

United Federation of Postal Clerks v. Blount (1971), 325 F. Supp. 879, affd. (1971), 404 U.S. 802, consd. [para. 98].

Thomas v. Collins (1945), 323 U.S. 516, consd. [para. 98].

International Union, U.A.W.A. v. Wisconsin Employment Relations Board (1949), 336 U.S. 245, consd. [para. 98].

United Mine Workers v. Illinois State Bar Association (1967), 389 U.S. 217, consd. [para. 98].

Railroad Trainmen v. Virginia ex rel. Virginia State Bar (1964), 377 U.S. 1, consd. [para. 98].

Alberta Union of Provincial Employees et al. and the Crown in Right of Alberta, Re (1980), 120 D.L.R.(3d) 590, consd. [para. 108].

Robertson and Rosetanni v. R., [1963] S.C.R. 651, consd. [para. 118].

Reference Re Manitoba Language Rights, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 721; 59 N.R. 321; 35 Man.R.(2d) 83, consd. [para. 120].

Crofter Hand Woven Harris Tweed Co. Ltd. v. Veitch, [1942] 1 All E.R. 142 (H.L.), consd. [para. 141].

Perrault v. Gauthier (1898), 28 S.C.R. 241, consd. [para. 141].

Singh v. Minister of Employment and Immigration, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 177; 58 N.R. 1, consd. [para. 146].

R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335, consd. [para. 146].

School Committee of the Town of Westerly v. Westerly Teachers Ass'n, 299 A. 2d 441, consd. [para. 158].

Reference Re Court of Unified Criminal Jurisdiction; McEvoy v. Attorney General of New Brunswick, [1983] 1 S.C.R. 704; 48 N.R. 228; 46 N.B.R.(2d) 219; 121 A.P.R. 219, consd. [para. 180].

McEvoy v. Attorney General of New Brunswick - see Reference Re Court of Unified Criminal Jurisdiction.

Statutes Noticed:

Canada Labour Code - see Labour Code, R.S.C. 1970 below.

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, sect. 1, sect. 2(a), sect. 2(b), sect. 2(c), sect. 2(d), sect. 6(2)(b), sect. 6(4), sect. 16, sect. 17, sect. 18, sect. 19, sect. 20, sect. 21, sect. 22, sect. 23, sect. 24, sect. 25, sect. 27, sect. 29, sect. 33 [para. 130].

Constitution Act, 1867, sect. 93, sect. 133 [para. 130].

Constitution Act, 1982, sect. 52(1).

Constitution of France, preamble [para. 40].

Constitution of Italy, art. 40. [para. 40].

Constitution of Japan, art. 28 [para. 40].

Constitution of the United States, First Amendment.

Convention (No. 87) Concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise, 67 U.N.T.S. 18 (1948), art. 1, art. 2, art. 3, art. 4, art. 5, art. 6, art. 7, art. 8, art. 9, art. 10, art. 11 [para. 110].

Industrial Relations Act, R.S.N.B. 1973, c. I-4, sect. 1(2) [para. 37].

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A. Res. 2200 A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR, Supp. (No. 16) 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), art. 8 [para. 106].

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. Res. 2200 A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR, Supp. (No. 16) 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), art. 22 [para. 106].

Judicature Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. J-1, sect. 27(1).

Labour Act, R.S.P.E.I. 1974, c. L-1, sect. 8(2) [para. 37].

Labour Code, R.S.C. 1970, c. L-1, sect. 107(2) [para. 37].

Labour Code, R.S.Q. 1977, c. C-27, sect. 109.1, sect. 110, sect. 110.1 [para. 37].

Labour Code, R.S.B.C. 1979, c. 212, sect. 1(2) [para. 37].

Labour Relations Act, R.S.O. 1980, c. 228, sect. 1(2), sect. 73 [para. 37].

Labour Relations Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. L-1.1, sect. 1(u), sect. 1(2), sect. 117.1, sect. 117.2, sect. 117.3, sect. 117.8, sect. 155.

Labour Relations Act, S.N. 1977, c. 64, sect. 2(2) [para. 37].

Labour Relations Act, S.M. 1972, c. 75, sect. 2(1), sect. 11 [para. 37].

Police Officers Collective Bargaining Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. P-12.05, sect. 1(m), sect. 2(1), sect. 2(2), sect. 3, sect. 9, sect. 10, sect. 15, sect. 46.

Public Service Employee Relations Act, R.S.A. 1980, c. P-33, sect. 1(o), sect. 1(q), sect. 48, sect. 49, sect. 50, sect. 55, sect. 93, sect. 94, sect. 95.

Trade Union Act, S.N.S. 1972, c. 19, as amended, sect. 13 [para. 37].

Trade Union Act, R.S.S. 1978, c. T-17, sect. 2(f) [para. 37].

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217 A (III), U.N. Doc. A/ 810, at 71 (1948) [para. 106].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Abernathy, Glenn, The Right of Assembly and Association (1961), p. 242 [para. 14].

Adlercreutz, Alex., Sweden, in International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 9 (Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers - The Netherlands, 1985) [para. 42].

Arthurs, Harry, Collective Bargaining in the Public Service of Canada: Bold Experiment or Act of Folly (1969), 67 Mich. L. Rev. 971 [para. 157].

Arthurs, Harry, "The Right to Strike in Ontario and the Common Law Provinces of Canada", in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Comparative Law (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1967), p. 187 [para. 143].

Beatty, David M., "Labour is Not Commodity", in Studies in Contract Law (Barry J. Reiter and John Swan, Eds., 1980), pp. 313-355, 324 [para. 136].

Canada, Secretary of State, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Report of Canada on Articles 10 to 12 (Ottawa, 1982).

Canada, Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons on the Constitution of Canada, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, Issue No. 43 (January 22, 1981), pp. 68-79.

Canada, Task Force on Labour Relations, Canadian Industrial Relations: The Report of Task Force on Labour Relations (1968)(Woods Report), pp. 96 [para. 138]; 129, 138, 175, 176 [para. 140].

Carrothers, A.W.R., Collective Bargaining Law in Canada (1965), pp. 34 [para. 139].

Carrothers, A.W.R., E.E. Palmer and W.B. Rayner, Collective Bargaining Law in Canada (2nd Ed. 1986), pp. 1-108 [para. 28].

Cavalluzzo, Paul, "Freedom of Association and the Right to Bargain Collectively", in Litigating the Values of a Nation: The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Joseph M. Weiler and Robin M. Elliot, Eds., 1986), pp. 199-200 [para. 14]; 202-203 [para. 32].

Christie, Innis, Employment Law in Canada (1980), p. 268 [para. 37].

Claydon, John, International Human Rights Law and the Interpretation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982), 4 Supreme Court L. Rev. 287 [para. 103].

Collective Bargaining in the Essential and Public Service Sectors (Morley Gunderson, Ed., University of Toronto Press, 1975) [para. 158].

Cunningham, W.B., Public Employment, Collective Bargaining and the Conventional Wisdom: Canada and U.S.A. (1966), 21 Ind. Rel. 406 [para. 158].

Emerson, Thomas I., Freedom of Association and Freedom of Expression (1964), 74 Yale L.J. 1, pp. 1 [paras. 13, 132]; 4 [paras. 16, 23].

Forde, M., The European Convention on Human Rights and Labour Law (1983), 31 Am. J. Comp. L. 301 [para. 112].

Gall, Peter A., "Freedom of Association and Trade Unions: A Double-Edged Constitutional Sword", in Litigating the Values of a Nation: The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Joseph M. Weiler and Robin M. Elliot, Eds., 1986), pp. 247 [para. 31]; 248 [para. 42].

Halsbury's Laws of England (3rd Ed.), vol. 7, pp. 195-196 [para. 28].

International Labour Organization, Freedom of Association: Digest of Decisions and Principles of the Freedom of Association Committee of the Governing Body of the ILO, (Geneva: International Labour Office, 3rd Ed. 1985) [para. 114, 150].

International Labour Organization, Official Bulletin: Special Supplement, vol. LIV, No. 2 (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1971) [para. 113].

International Labour Organization, Official Bulletin, vol. LXVIII, Series B, No. 3 (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1985) [paras., 116, 161].

Jenks, C. Wilfred, Human Rights and International Labour Standards (1960), p. 49 [para. 13].

Kahn-Freund's Labour and the Law (3rd Ed. 1983)(Paul Davies and Mark Freedland, Eds.), p. 292 [para. 141].

MacFarlane, L.J., The Theory and Practice of Human Rights (1985), p. 82 [para. 12].

Mill, John Stuart, Principles of Political Economy (1893), vol. 2, p. 352 [para. 131].

Osieke, E., The Exercise of the Judicial Function with Respect to the International Labour Organization (1974-75), 47 British Year Book of International Law 315 [para. 112].

Phillips, O. Hood, and Jackson, Paul, Constitutional and Administrative Law (6th Ed. 1978), p. 503 [para. 28].

Raggi, Reena, An Independent Right to Freedom of Association (1977), 12 Harv. C. R.-C.L.L. Rev. 1 [paras. 16, 23, 134].

Ramm, Th., "Federal Republic of Germany", in International Encyclopedia for Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 5 (Kluwer - The Netherlands, 1979) [para. 42].

Summers, Clyde W., Freedom of Association and Compulsory Unionism in Sweden and the United States (1964), 112 U. Pa. L.R. 647 [para. 16].

Swan, Kenneth P., "Safety Belt or Strait-Jacket? Restrictions on the Scope of Public Sector Collective Bargaining", in Essays in Collective Bargaining and Industrial Democracy, Geoffrey England and George Lermer, Eds. (Don Mills: CCH Canadian Ltd., 1983) [para. 167].

Swan, Kenneth P., The Search for Meaningful Criteria in Interest Arbitration (Reprint Series No. 41, Kingston: Queen's University, Industrial Relations Centre, 1978) [para. 165].

Tocqueville, Alexis De, Democracy in America (1945), vol. 1, p. 196 [paras. 12, 131]; vol. 2, p. 116 [para. 14].

Tribe, Laurence, H., American Constitutional Law (1978), p. 702 [para. 21]; 703 [para. 96].

Valticos, N., International Labour Law (Deventer, The Netherlands: Kluwer, 1979) [para. 111].

Weiler, Joseph M. "The Regulation of Strikes and Picketing Under the Charter", in Litigating the Values of a Nation: The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Joseph M. Weiler and Robin M. Elliot, Eds., 1986), pp. 226-227 [para. 42].

Weiler, Paul, Reconcilable Differences: New Directions in Canadian Labour Law (1980), p. 11 [para. 42].

Wellington, Harry H., and Winter, Ralph K. Jr., The Limits of Collective Bargaining in Public Employment (1969), 78 Yale L.J. 1107 [para. 158].

Woods Task Force Report on Canadian Industrial Relations (1968) - see Canada, Task Force on Labour Relations.

Counsel:

Timothy, J. Christian, for the appellant, Alberta Union of Provincial Employees;

Sheila Greckol and June Ross, for the appellant, Canadian Union of Public Employees;

Barrie Chivers, for the appellant, Alberta International Firefighters Association;

Roderick A. McLennan, Q.C., Nolan Steed and Brian R. Burrows, for the respondent, Attorney General of Alberta;

V.E. Toews and V.J. Matthews Lemieux, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Manitoba;

E.A. Bowie, Q.C., for the intervenor, Attorney General of Canada;

Blenus Wright, Q.C., and John Cavarzan, Q.C., for the intervenor, Attorney General of Ontario;

Real-A. Forest and Gilles Grenier, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Quebec;

Alison Scott and R. Endres, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Nova Scotia;

E. Robert A. Edwards, Q.C., for the intervenor, Attorney General of British Columbia;

Ralph C. Thompson, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Prince Edward Island;

M.C. Crane and B.G. Welsh, for the intervenor, Attorney General for Saskatchewan;

Deborah E. Fry, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Newfoundland.

Solicitors of Record:

Timothy J. Christian, Edmonton, for the appellant, the Alberta Union of Provincial Employees;

Sheila J. Greckol and June M. Ross, Edmonton, for the appellant, the Canadian Union of Public Employees;

A. Barrie C. Chivers, Edmonton, for the appellant, the Alberta International Fire Fighters Association;

McLennan, Ross, Edmonton, and the Department of the Attorney General, Edmonton, for the respondent;

Department of the Attorney General, Winnipeg, for the intervenor, the Attorney General of Manitoba;

Roger Tasse, Ottawa, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Canada;

Archie Campbell, Toronto, for the intervenor, Attorney General for Ontario;

Real-A. Forest and Gilles Grenier, Sainte-Foy, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Quebec;

Department of the Attorney General, Halifax, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Nova Scotia;

Ministry of the Attorney General, Victoria, for the intervenor, the Attorney General of British Columbia;

Ralph C. Thompson, Charlottetown, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Prince Edward Island;

Serge Kujawa, Regina, for the intervenor, Attorney General for Saskatchewan;

Department of Justice, St. John's, for the intervenor, Attorney General of Newfoundland.

This case was heard on June 27-28, 1985, at Ottawa, Ontario, before Dickson, C.J.C., Beetz, McIntyre, Chouinard, Wilson, Le Dain and La Forest, JJ., of the Supreme Court of Canada.

On April 9, 1987, the judgment of the Supreme Court of Canada was delivered in both official languages and the following opinions were filed:

Le Dain, J. (Beetz and La Forest, JJ., concurring) - see paragraphs 1 to 4;

McIntyre, J. - see paragraphs 5 to 45;

Dickson, C.J.C. (Wilson, J., concurring) dissenting - see paragraphs 46 to 182.

Chouinard, J., took no part in the judgment.

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664 practice notes
  • Dickason and Human Rights Commission (Alta.) v. University of Alberta, (1992) 127 A.R. 241 (SCC)
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532 cases
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4 firm's commentaries
  • 'Stare Decisis' And Constitutional Supremacy: Will Our Charter Past Become An Obstacle To Our Charter Future?
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • October 21, 2013
    ..."Fraser"]. 17 That trilogy of cases included: Reference re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alberta), [1987] S.C.J. No. 10, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 313 (S.C.C.); Public Service Alliance of Canada v. Canada, [1987] S.C.J. No. 9, [1987] 1 S.C.R. 424 (S.C.C.); and Retail, Wholesale and Departmen......
  • Court Of Appeal Summaries (February 21-24, 2017)
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • March 7, 2017
    ...on interpreting employment agreements. The Supreme Court stated in Reference re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alberta), [1987] 1 S.C.R. 313, as important as employment itself is the way a person's employment is terminated. The court noted that it is on termination of employment tha......
  • The Importance Of Written Employment Contracts
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • September 18, 2008
    ...click here. Footnotes 1 Slaight Communications V. Davidson, [1989] 1 SCR 1038. Reference re Public Service Employee Relations Act (AD) [1987] 1 SCR 313. 2 McKinley v. BC Tel [2001] 2 SCR 3 Wallace v. UGG Ltd. [1997] 3 SCR 701. 4 Evans v. Teamsters Local 31, 2008 SCC 20. 5 Honda Canada Inc. ......
  • Principles Of Employment Law: Just Cause
    • Canada
    • Mondaq Canada
    • November 4, 2022
    ...Re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alta), [1987] 1 S.C.R. 313, a leading Supreme Court of Canada (the 'SCC') case, Chief Justice Dickson states: 'Work is one of the most fundamental aspects in a person's life, providing the individual with a means of financial support and, as importa......
132 books & journal articles
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive The Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Fifth Edition
    • August 29, 2013
    ...(4th) 577 ............................................. 11, 24, 87, 311 Reference Re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alberta), [1987] 1 SCR 313, 38 DLR (4th) 161 ............................................... 42, 60, 194 Reference Re Remuneration of Judges of the Provincial Court of......
  • How the Charter has failed non-citizens in Canada: reviewing thirty years of Supreme Court of Canada jurisprudence.
    • Canada
    • McGill Law Journal Vol. 58 No. 3, March 2013
    • March 1, 2013
    ...his control. (26) This ruling predates Chief Justice Dickson's statement in Reference Re "Public Service Employee Relations Act" (Alta) ([1987] 1 SCR 313 at 348-49, (sub nom Reference Re Public Service Employee Relations Act, Labour Relations Act and Police Officers Collective Bargaining Ac......
  • The International Constitution
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Constitutional Labour Rights in Canada. Farm Workers and the Fraser Case
    • June 17, 2012
    ...subsequent cases began to chip away at the Labour Trilogy’s 1 Reference Re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alta) , [1987] 1 SCR 313 [ Alberta Reference ]; RWDSU v Saskatchewan , [1987] 1 SCR 460; and PSAC v Canada , [1987] 1 SCR 424. So comrades, come rally, And the last f‌ight let u......
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Individual Employment Law. Second Edition
    • June 16, 2008
    ...5 W.W.R. 575, 75 C.L.L.C. ¶14,280 ...........................406, 414 Reference Re Public Service Employee Relations Act (Alberta), [1987] 1 S.C.R. 313, 38 D.L.R. (4th) 161, [1987] S.C.J. No. 10 ....................11, 96, 351 Regan v. Chaleur Entrepreneurship Centre Inc. (1995), 154 N.B.R.......
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