Appendix 1: Annotated Bibliography

AuthorNathan Baker
appendix 1
US, National Science & Technology Council and Department of Transportation,
“Ensuring American Leadership in Automated Vehicle Technologies: Automated
Vehicles 4.0” (January 2020), online (pd): Department of Transportation‌iles/2020-02/
This report builds on and evolves upon the principles stated in the three earlier
automated vehicle reports the US Department of Transportation was involved
in drafting. The initial paper provided a guidance framework, the second added
technical assistance and best practices to states for testing and integration, and
the third provided principles for innovation of all surface transportation modes.
The newest report is structured around three areas: (1)principles of autonomous
vehicles, (2)administration ef‌forts to support growth, and (3)opportunities for
The report highlights a number of opportunities for near-future adoption
of automated technologies, including in farming, mining, and transit. It reviews
opportunities with expanding connectivity through 5G networks and the import-
ance of standardized infrastructure, including signs and signals that can be con-
nected to vehicles.
186 | Autonomous Vehicles
“Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0” (October
2018), online (pd): Department of Transportation‌iles/docs/policy-initiatives/automated-vehicles/320711/preparing-
This document recognizes the fast pace at which automated vehicles are learn-
ing and being developed. It identif‌ies the US government’s role in establishing
voluntary standards and targeting research to promote safe integration. It notes
that federal regulations may be waived during certain testing of autonomous vehi-
cles, such as those surrounding human safety for occupants if no occupant will
be present during testing (for example, removing seatbelts to allow greater room
when no person will be in the vehicle).
An interesting point raised is that with the rise of autonomous vehicles, the
way in which people interact with vehicles will change in both driving and non-driv-
ing scenarios. Vehicles operating autonomously could begin moving at any time
that they are called. Emergency workers will need to be trained to deal with these
vehicles and may require an override of some sort to ensure that the vehicle is shut
down if damaged to prevent unpredictable behaviour on the part of the vehicle.
Expanded road testing is recognized as signif‌icant in determining actual safety
statistics relating to autonomous vehicles. Only in a real-world situation can their
strengths and weaknesses be assessed. This is not to say that testing should not
begin in closed courses and systems but instead recognizes that the eventual goal
must be on-road testing.
This report also reviews the history of automation in the aviation workforce.
As automation technology has advanced, pilots have not been made moot. Manual
control is still required in certain situations. However, safety has been greatly
enhanced through the use of automation. Lessons can be learned, including the
importance of interface design to ensure that important information is communi-
cated ef‌fectively to the driver. Fully autonomous vehicles strive to take this process
further and eliminate the need for a driver, but a mixed human–machine interface
such as that in aviation may be the next step.
US, Department of Transportation and National Highway Trac Safety
Administration, “Automated Driving Systems 2.0: A Vision for Safety”
(September 2017), online (pd): National Highway Trac Safety Administration‌iles/documents/13069a-ads2.0_090617_
This document was created in an attempt to provide strong guidance by prioritizing
twelve safety design elements in autonomous vehicles. It reviews elements that
provide goals and approaches to reach those goals.

To continue reading

Request your trial

VLEX uses login cookies to provide you with a better browsing experience. If you click on 'Accept' or continue browsing this site we consider that you accept our cookie policy. ACCEPT