Express Malice

AuthorRoger McConchie; David Potts
ProfessionMember of the Bars of British Columbia and Alberta/Member of the Bar of Ontario
Pages299-333
CHAPTER
SIXTEEN:
Express
Malice
A.
INTRODUCTION
A
defendant
is
actuated
by
express malice
if he or she
publishes defamato-
ry
expression:
i)
knowing
it is
false;
or
ii)
with reckless
indifference
whether
it is
true
or
false;
or
iii) for the dominant purpose of injuring the plaintiff because of spite or
animosity;
or
iv)
for
some other dominant purpose which
is
improper
or
indirect,
or
also,
if the
occasion
is
privileged,
for a
dominant purpose
not
related
to
the
occasion.
More
than
one of
these closely-related findings
of
express malice
may be
made
by the
court
in a
given case.
Hiltz
and
Seamone
Co. v.
Nova
Scotia
(Attorney
General)
(1997),
164
N.S.R.
(2d) 161,
N.S.J.
No. 530 per
Stewart
J. at
paras.
92
[improper dominant pur-
pose],
103
[reckless
falsities],</