AuthorDavid Cantor
   
Who deserves protection? One of the main functions of refugee law is
to provide a set of criteria for distinguishing non-nationals who merit
international protection from those who do not. That assessment is
rooted in a fear of extreme discrimination in the refugee’s own country
for which national protection is not forthcoming. This enquiry, then,
is fundamental to the rationale of refugee law. But refugee law also
demands an answer to a second, and less comfortable, question: who,
regardless of such fear, does not deserve international protection? It is
here where considerations of individual character and criminality enter
the ambit of refugee law. This is the vexed matter to which Dr. Joseph
Rikhof turns his considerable powers of legal scholarship in the mono-
graph Exclusion and Refoulement, f‌irst published in  as The
Criminal Refugee: The Treatment of Asylum Seekers with a Criminal
Background in International and Domestic Law and appearing here in
its second edition.
Exclusion and Refoulement gifts the reader with a clear and per-
ceptive understanding of how key elements of this f‌ield of law deal
with actual or suspected criminality by non-nationals who might other-
wise qualify for international protection. That this is an ongoing prac-
tical concern in many countries, and not merely a matter for abstract
legal discussion, is evidenced by major developments in the caselaw
of leading jurisdictions since the f‌irst edition of this volume was pub-
lished ten years ago. It is seen too in the surge of important new legal
scholarship on this topic, including Terrorism and Exclusion from
Refugee Status in the UK by Dr. Sarah Singer, Exclusion Clauses of

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