R. v. Joe (J.A.), (1993) 92 Man.R.(2d) 8 (CA)

JudgeScott, C.J.M., Huband and Twaddle, JJ.A.
CourtCourt of Appeal (Manitoba)
Case DateDecember 21, 1993
JurisdictionManitoba
Citations(1993), 92 Man.R.(2d) 8 (CA)

R. v. Joe (J.A.) (1993), 92 Man.R.(2d) 8 (CA);

    61 W.A.C. 8

MLB headnote and full text

Her Majesty The Queen (respondent) v. Joseph Alan Joe (appellant/accused/applicant)

(Suit No. A.R. 92-30-00882)

Indexed As: R. v. Joe (J.A.)

Manitoba Court of Appeal

Scott, C.J.M., Huband and Twaddle, JJ.A.

December 21, 1993.

Summary:

The accused accumulated almost $1,800 in parking tickets. Convictions were entered by default. The accused had notice, but failed to appear. The accused entered the fine option program, but failed to complete it. The accused was arrested and incarcerated under s. 20(5) of the Manitoba Summary Convic­tions Act. The accused applied for certiorari to quash the convictions and for a decla­ration that imprisonment for nonpayment of fines vio­lated s. 12 of the Charter. The accused also claimed that parking violation convic­tions based on s. 20 violated ss. 7 and 11(b) of the Charter.

The Manitoba Court of Queen's Bench dismissed the application. The accused ap­pealed.

The Manitoba Court of Appeal (1) af­firmed the refusal to set aside the convic­tions; (2) concluded that imprisonment for nonpayment of fines was a violation of s. 12 of the Charter; and (3) set aside the warrant for the arrest of the accused.

Civil Rights - Topic 3834.1

Cruel and unusual punishment - Imprison­ment for regulatory motor vehicle offences - Section 6(3) of the Manitoba Summary Convictions Act prescribed a term of imprisonment "[w]here a court or justice imposes a fine on a person convicted of an offence but does not impose a term of imprisonment in default of payment of the fine and the person defaults in payment of the fine or part thereof ..." - The Manitoba Court of Appeal held that s. 6(3) was "... unconstitutional to the extent that it applied to parking offences" - See para­graphs 43 to 55 and 89 to 133.

Civil Rights - Topic 3834.1

Cruel and unusual punishment - Imprison­ment for regulatory motor vehicle offences - The accused was convicted in default for 35 parking violations totalling almost $1,800 - The accused had notice of the convictions and the consequences of non­payment - He entered the fine option program, but failed to complete it - The accused was imprisoned under the Mani­toba Summary Convictions Act - The Manitoba Court of Appeal held that im­prisonment for a parking offence vio­lated s. 12 of the Charter and could not be justified under s. 1 of the Charter - The court declined to consider whether failing to complete the fine option program was unconstitutional - See paragraphs 43 to 55 and 89 to 133.

Criminal Law - Topic 5631

Punishments (sentence) - Fines, penalties and compensation orders - Fine - Default - Imprisonment - [See both Civil Rights - Topic 3830 ].

Cases Noticed:

R. v. Histed (1992), 78 Man.R.(2d) 98; 16 W.A.C. 98 (C.A.), dist. [para. 14].

R. v. Burt (1988), 60 Sask.R. 100 (C.A.), consd. [para. 20].

Reference Re Section 94(2) of the Motor Vehicle Act (B.C.), [1985] 2 S.C.R. 486; 63 N.R. 266; [1986] 1 W.W.R. 481; 48 C.R.(3d) 289; 23 C.C.C.(3d) 289, consd. [paras. 22, 104].

R. v. Hebert, [1990] 2 S.C.R. 151; 110 N.R. 1; [1990] 5 W.W.R. 1; 57 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 77 C.R.(3d) 145; 49 C.R.R. 114; 47 B.C.L.R.(2d) 1, consd. [para. 23].

R. v. Therens, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 613; 59 N.R. 122; 40 Sask.R. 122; [1985] 4 W.W.R. 286; 18 D.L.R.(4th) 655; 32 M.V.R. 153; 45 C.R.(3d) 97; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 481, refd to. [para. 23].

Pearlman v. Manitoba Law Society Judi­cial Committee, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 869; 130 N.R. 121; 75 Man.R.(2d) 81; 6 W.A.C. 81; [1991] 6 W.W.R. 289, consd. [para. 24].

R. v. Gray (1988), 54 Man.R.(2d) 240 (C.A.), consd. [para. 26].

Sefa v. Sefa (1985), 31 Man.R.(2d) 252 (C.A.), consd. [para. 27].

R. v. Sutherland (1990), 96 N.S.R.(2d) 271; 253 A.P.R. 271 (C.A.), consd. [para. 28].

United Nurses of Alberta v. Alberta (Attorney General), [1992] 1 S.C.R. 901; 135 N.R. 321; 125 A.R. 241; 14 W.A.C. 241; [1992] 3 W.W.R. 481, refd to. [para. 29].

R. v. Lippé - see Lippé et autres v. Québec (Procureur général) et autres.

Lippé et autres v. Québec (Procureur général) et autres, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 114; 128 N.R. 1; 39 Q.A.C. 241, refd to. [para. 29].

R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 200; 50 C.R.(3d) 1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308, appld. [para. 32].

R. v. Pellerin (1989), 32 O.A.C. 146 (C.A.), consd. [para. 34].

Kindler v. Canada (Minister of Justice), [1991] 2 S.C.R. 779; 129 N.R. 81; 67 C.C.C.(3d) 1, consd. [para. 40].

R. v. CIP Inc., [1992] 1 S.C.R. 843; 135 N.R. 90; 52 O.A.C. 366, refd to. [para. 42].

R. v. Smith (E.D.), [1987] 1 S.C.R. 1045; 75 N.R. 321, refd to. [paras. 43, 109].

Steele v. Mountain Institution, [1990] 2 S.C.R. 1385; 121 N.R. 198; 60 C.C.C.(3d) 1, consd. [paras. 47, 111].

R. v. Goltz, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 485; 131 N.R. 1; 5 B.C.A.C. 161; 11 W.A.C. 161; 8 C.R.(4th) 82, consd. [para. 48].

R. v. Guiller (1985), 48 C.R.(3d) 226 (Ont. Dist. Ct.), consd. [para. 48].

Baron et al. v. Minister of National Rev­enue et al., [1993] 1 S.C.R. 416; 146 N.R. 270, consd. [para. 50].

R. v. Natrall (1972), 32 D.L.R.(3d) 241 (B.C.C.A.), refd to. [para. 51].

R. v. Yamelst, [1975] 3 W.W.R. 546 (B.C.S.C.), refd to. [para. 51].

R. v. Snider (1977), 37 C.C.C.(2d) 189 (Ont. C.A.), refd to. [para. 51].

MacKay et al. v. Manitoba, [1989] 2 S.C.R. 357; 99 N.R. 116; 61 Man.R.(2d) 270, consd. [para. 57].

Danson v. Ontario (Attorney General), [1990] 2 S.C.R. 1086; 112 N.R. 362; 41 O.A.C. 250, refd to. [para. 57].

Hy and Zel's Inc. v. Ontario (Attorney General) - see Magder (Paul) Furs Ltd. et al. v. Ontario (Attorney General).

Magder (Paul) Furs Ltd. et al. v. Ontario (Attorney General) (1993), 160 N.R. 161; 67 O.A.C. 81 (S.C.C.), consd. [para. 58].

R. v. Big M Drug Mart, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 295; 58 N.R. 81; 60 A.R. 161; [1985] 3 W.W.R. 481; 18 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 18 D.L.R.(4th) 321; 37 Alta. L.R.(2d) 97; 85 C.L.L.C. 14,023; 13 C.R.R. 64, consd. [para. 59].

R. v. Seaboyer and Gayme, [1991] 2 S.C.R. 577; 128 N.R. 81; 48 O.A.C. 81; 66 C.C.C.(3d) 321, consd. [para. 60].

R. v. Wholesale Travel Group Inc. and Chedore, [1991] 3 S.C.R. 154; 130 N.R. 1; 49 O.A.C. 161; 67 C.C.C.(3d) 193; 8 C.R.(4th) 145, consd. [para. 60].

R. v. DeSousa, [1993] 2 S.C.R. 944; 142 N.R. 1; 56 O.A.C. 109; 76 C.C.C.(3d) 124, consd. [para. 61].

R. v. Laba (A.I.) - see R. v. Johnson (H.A.) et al.

R. v. Johnson (H.A.) et al. (1992), 56 O.A.C. 97; 74 C.C.C.(3d) 538 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 62].

International Electronics Corp., Re - see Holmes v. Minister of National Revenue et al.

Holmes v. Minister of National Revenue et al. (1992), 12 B.C.A.C. 191; 23 W.A.C. 191 (C.A.), consd. [para. 63].

R. v. Wilson (M.C.) (1993), 36 B.C.A.C. 161; 58 W.A.C. 161 (C.A.), consd. [para. 64].

International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union v. Canada, [1990] 2 F.C. 449; 33 F.T.R. 161 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 70].

R. v. Pearson (E.), [1992] 3 S.C.R. 665; 144 N.R. 243; 147 N.R. 335 (add.); 52 Q.A.C. 1, consd. [para. 73].

Singh et al. v. Minister of Employment and Immigration, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 177; 58 N.R. 1; 14 C.R.R. 13; 12 Admin. L.R. 137; 17 D.L.R.(4th) 422, consd. [para. 74].

R. v. Lyons, [1987] 2 S.C.R. 309; 80 N.R. 161; 82 N.S.R.(2d) 271; 207 A.P.R. 271; 37 C.C.C.(3d) 1, consd. [para. 75].

Vickery v. Prothonotary, Supreme Court (N.S.), [1991] 1 S.C.R. 671; 124 N.R. 95; 104 N.S.R.(2d) 181; 283 A.P.R. 181, consd. [para. 81].

R. v. Miller and Cockriell, [1977] 2 S.C.R. 680; 11 N.R. 386, refd to. [para. 110].

R. v. Woolf (1819), 2 B. & Ald. 609; 106 E.R. 488 (K.B.), refd to. [para. 127].

Statutes Noticed:

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982, sect. 1 [para. 31 et seq.]; sect. 7 [para. 11 et seq.]; sect. 8 [para. 63]; sect. 11 [paras. 15, 75]; sect. 12 [para. 11 et seq.].

Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, sect. 269 [para. 61]; sect. 718(5) [para. 46]; sect. 803(2) [para. 4].

Summary Convictions Act, S.M. 1985-86, c. 4; C.C.S.M., c. S-230, sect. 6 [para. 105]; sect. 6(2) [paras. 46, 105]; sect. 6(3) [paras. 105, 131]; sect. 6(3)(a) [paras. 105, 107]; sect. 6(3)(b) [para. 105]; sect. 7 [para. 102]; sect. 7(1), sect. 12 [para. 7]; sect. 20 [para. 11 et seq.]; sect. 20(1) [para. 30]; sect. 20(3) [para. 102]; sect. 20(4) [para. 126]; sect. 20(5) [para. 5 et seq.]; sect. 20.1(1) [para. 5]; sect. 21(2) [para. 45]; sect. 21(3) [paras. 5, 71]; sect. 21(4) [para. 71]; sect. 22 [paras. 45, 106].

Summary Convictions Act Regulations (Man.), Reg. 178/88, generally [para. 5].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Jobson and Atkins, Imprisonment in Default and Fundamental Justice (1985-86), 28 Cr. L.Q. 251, p. 264 [para. 52].

Counsel:

J.A. Skinner and R.I. Histed, for the appellant/accused/applicant;

S.D. Greenberg, for the respondent.

This appeal was heard on March 12, 1993, before Scott, C.J.M., Huband and Twaddle, JJ.A., of the Manitoba Court of Appeal.

The judgment of the Court of Appeal was delivered on December 21, 1993, when the following opinions were filed:

Scott, C.J.M. - see paragraphs 1 to 88;

Twaddle, J.A. (Huband, J.A., concurring) - see paragraphs 89 to 133.

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6 practice notes
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    ...29 ........ 329 R v Jobidon, [1991] 2 SCR 714, 66 CCC (3d) 454, 7 CR (4th) 233 .......99, 140, 141, 144, 146, 504, 505, 589 R v Joe (1993), 92 Man R (2d) 8, 87 CCC (3d) 234, 27 CR (4th) 79 (CA) ......... 569 R v John Doe (R v Nelson) (2007), 228 CCC (3d) 302, 54 CR (6th) 393, 2007 BCCA 490 ......
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4 cases
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    • Newfoundland and Labrador Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)
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    ...refd to. [para. 28]. R. v. Hebb (1989), 89 N.S.R.(2d) 137; 227 A.P.R. 137; 69 C.R.(3d) 1 (T.D.), refd to. [para. 31]. R. v. Joe (1993), 92 Man.R.(2d) 8; 61 W.A.C. 8; 27 C.R.(4th) 79 (C.A.), refd to. [para. Statutes Noticed: Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982, sect. 1, sect. 12 [p......
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    • November 7, 1994
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2 books & journal articles
  • Table of Cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Archive Criminal Law. Seventh Edition
    • August 4, 2018
    ...R v Jobidon, [1991] 2 SCR 714, 66 CCC (3d) 454, 7 CR (4th) 233 ......................94, 134–35, 136, 138, 141, 480, 450 R v Joe (1993), 92 Man R (2d) 8, 87 CCC (3d) 234, 27 CR (4th) 79 (CA) ......... 542 R v John Doe (R v Nelson) (2007), 228 CCC (3d) 302, 54 CR (6th) 393, 2007 BCCA 490 .........
  • Table of cases
    • Canada
    • Irwin Books Criminal Law. Eighth edition
    • September 1, 2022
    ...29 ........ 329 R v Jobidon, [1991] 2 SCR 714, 66 CCC (3d) 454, 7 CR (4th) 233 .......99, 140, 141, 144, 146, 504, 505, 589 R v Joe (1993), 92 Man R (2d) 8, 87 CCC (3d) 234, 27 CR (4th) 79 (CA) ......... 569 R v John Doe (R v Nelson) (2007), 228 CCC (3d) 302, 54 CR (6th) 393, 2007 BCCA 490 ......

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