The Future of Democratic Regulation

AuthorCraig Forcese
 
The Future of Democratic
In Chapter , I described three modern generations of democratic
regulation of security services in Canada: the McDonald Commission
period (–), the post-/ period (–), and the mod-
ernization period beginning during Ralph Goodale’s tenure as public
safety minister ( forward). Over these three periods, security ser-
vice powers have changed (and expanded). Over the same period, the
legal obligations of these services also increased, and new institutions
dedicated to democratic regulation appeared (especially the National
Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliamentarians [NSICoP]
and National Security and Intelligence Review Agency [NSIRA]). In
this chapter, I summarize my key observations and oer brief thoughts
on the future direction of democratic regulation of the security services.
In this book, I have argued that history frames the functions of both
the security services and those who hold them to account. From this
history, I have proposed three values that underpin Canadas national
security system and against which security service conduct should be
assessed. Ecacy/eciency is the most obvious value: does the secur-
ity service meet its mandates with minimum waste? It is also, however,

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