R. v. Raponi (W.), 2006 ABQB 593

Judge:Watson, J.
Court:Court of Queen's Bench of Alberta
Case Date:June 23, 2006
Jurisdiction:Alberta
Citations:2006 ABQB 593;(2006), 405 A.R. 78 (QB)
 
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R. v. Raponi (W.) (2006), 405 A.R. 78 (QB)

MLB headnote and full text

Temp. Cite: [2006] A.R. TBEd. AU.048

Her Majesty The Queen (respondent) v. Walter Raponi (applicant)

(060341344X1; 2006 ABQB 593)

Indexed As: R. v. Raponi (W.)

Alberta Court of Queen's Bench

Judicial District of Edmonton

Watson, J.

July 28, 2006.

Summary:

A police officer seized almost $35,000 from Raponi, a lawyer, who was in the process of posting bail for a client. The client subsequently pleaded guilty to trafficking in cocaine and was sentenced to four years' imprisonment. The client claimed that the monies held by Raponi were not his, but were provided by an unnamed friend. The Crown applied under s. 490(2) of the Criminal Code to extend detention of the money after the initial three month period passed. Raponi opposed the application and cross-applied for the return of the money.

The Alberta Provincial Court, in a judgment reported (2001), 291 A.R. 139, held that absent reasonable and probable grounds to seize the money, the seizure was unlawful and violated Raponi's Charter rights. The monies could not be seized upon mere suspicion that they constituted the proceeds of crime. The court ordered that the monies be returned. The Crown appealed.

The Alberta Court of Queen's Bench, in a judgment reported 2002 ABQB 67, dismissed the Crown's appeal. The Crown appealed.

The Alberta Court of Appeal, in a judgment reported (2003), 327 A.R. 271; 296 W.A.C. 271, allowed the appeal and directed that a hearing be conducted under s. 490(9) of the Criminal Code to determine whether the seized monies ought to be returned or forfeited as the proceeds of crime. The accused appealed.

The Supreme Court of Canada, in a judgment reported (2004), 323 N.R. 373; 354 A.R. 292; 329 W.A.C. 292, allowed the appeal and set aside the Court of Appeal's order without prejudice to the rights of the parties to proceed in the proper manner, as set out by the court. The Provincial Court had no jurisdiction under s. 490(2) to order the unlawfully seized monies returned. The order was a nullity, as were all subsequent proceedings. Raponi should have applied to the Court of Queen's Bench for replevin. Further, the Crown had no right of appeal under s. 490(9). The Crown's remedy, when the funds were ordered returned, should have sought certiorari to quash the return order. Raponi applied for a return of the monies, with interest, and sought solicitor and own client costs.

The Alberta Court of Queen's Bench held that the Crown's unlawful taking of the monies violated Raponi's s. 8 Charter rights and a just and appropriate remedy under s. 24(1) was to order the monies returned, with interest under the Pre-judgment Interest Act. Alternatively, the monies were returnable by way of replevin or as monies unlawfully and tortuously converted by the Crown. As the matter was predominantly a civil proceeding and a test case, the court ordered that the Crown pay to Raponi party and party costs under Column 1 plus reasonable disbursements.

Civil Rights - Topic 1648

Property - Search and seizure - Return of illegally seized property - [See Criminal Law - Topic 3170 ].

Civil Rights - Topic 8380.6

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms - Denial of rights - Remedies - Return of seized property - [See Criminal Law - Topic 3170 ].

Criminal Law - Topic 3170

Special powers - Power of seizure - Detention or return of things seized - A police officer seized cash from the accused's lawyer (Raponi) when he attempted to post bail for the accused - The officer suspected that the funds were the proceeds of crime - No charges were laid against Raponi and there were no reasonable grounds to seize the funds (i.e., seizure was unlawful) - The Supreme Court of Canada previously held that a Provincial Court judge had no jurisdiction under s. 490(2) to order a return of the seized monies - Whether a Provincial Court judge, as a "court of competent jurisdiction" under the Charter, could order a return of the monies under s. 490(9) was not dealt with in the courts below and had to be determined another day - Raponi's remedy for a return of the unlawfully seized monies was to apply to the Court of Queen's Bench for replevin - Raponi then applied for a return of the monies, with interest, and sought solicitor and own client costs - The Alberta Court of Queen's Bench held that the Crown's unlawful taking of the monies violated Raponi's s. 8 Charter rights and a just and appropriate remedy under s. 24(1) was to order the monies returned, with interest under the Pre-judgment Interest Act - Alternatively, the monies were returnable by way of replevin or as monies unlawfully and tortuously converted by the Crown - As the matter was predominantly a civil proceeding and a test case, the Crown was ordered to pay Raponi's party and party costs under Column 1 plus reasonable disbursements.

Crown - Topic 1548

Torts by and against Crown - Conversion - Wrongful seizure and sale of property by Crown - [See Criminal Law - Topic 3170 ].

Practice - Topic 7035.1

Costs - Party and party costs - Entitlement to party and party costs - Against the Crown or governmental bodies - [See Criminal Law - Topic 3170 ].

Replevin - Topic 610

When available - Monies unlawfully seized by Crown - [See Criminal Law - Topic 3170 ].

Cases Noticed:

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R. v. O'Connor (H.P.), [1995] 4 S.C.R. 411; 191 N.R. 1; 68 B.C.A.C. 1; 112 W.A.C. 1; [1996] 2 W.W.R. 153; 103 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 29 W.C.B.(2d) 152; 44 C.R.(4th) 1; 130 D.L.R.(4th) 235; 33 C.R.R.(2d) 1; 1995 CarswellBC 1098, refd to. [para. 32, footnote 9].

R. v. 974649 Ontario Inc. et al., [2001] 3 S.C.R. 575; 279 N.R. 345; 154 O.A.C. 345; 159 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 206 D.L.R.(4th) 444; 47 C.R.(5th) 316; 88 C.R.R.(2d) 189; 2001 CarswellOnt 4251; 6 O.R.(3d) 359; 2001 SCC 81, refd to. [para. 32, footnote 10].

R. v. Hynes (D.W.), [2001] 3 S.C.R. 623; 278 N.R. 299; 208 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 181; 624 A.P.R. 181; 159 C.C.C.(3d) 359; 206 D.L.R.(4th) 483; 47 C.R.(5th) 278; 88 C.R.R.(2d) 222; 2001 CarswellNfld 316, refd to. [para. 32, footnote 11].

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R. v. Feeney (M.), [1997] 2 S.C.R. 13; 212 N.R. 83; 91 B.C.A.C. 1; 148 W.A.C. 1; 115 C.C.C.(3d) 129; 44 C.R.R.(2d) 1; [1997] 6 W.W.R. 634; 7 C.R.(5th) 101; 146 D.L.R.(4th) 609; 1997 CarswellBC 1015; REJB 1997-00866; J.E. 97-1133, refd to. [para. 39, footnote 16].

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R. v. McClelland (B.L.) (1995), 165 A.R. 332; 89 W.A.C. 332; 98 C.C.C.(3d) 509; 29 Alta. L.R.(3d) 351; 12 M.V.R.(3d) 288; 1995 CarswellAlta 176 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 41, footnote 19].

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R. v. Clayton (W.) et al. (2005), 196 O.A.C. 16; 194 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 27 C.R.(6th) 197; 129 C.R.R.(2d) 82; 2005 CarswellOnt 1061 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 43, footnote 26].

R. v. Cooper (M.A.) (2005), 231 N.S.R.(2d) 156; 733 A.P.R. 156; 195 C.C.C.(3d) 162; 28 C.R.(6th) 338; 19 M.V.R.(5th) 119; 2005 CarswellNS 113; 2005 NSCA 47, refd to. [para. 43, footnote 27].

R. v. Schindler (J.F.) (2001), 277 A.R. 98; 242 W.A.C. 98; 40 C.R.(5th) 378; 80 C.R.R.(2d) 16; 2001 CarswellAlta 101; 2001 ABCA 22, refd to. [para. 44, footnote 28].

R. v. Garofoli et al., [1990] 2 S.C.R. 1421; 116 N.R. 241; 43 O.A.C. 1; 36 Q.A.C. 161; 80 C.R.(3d) 317; 60 C.C.C.(3d) 161; 50 C.R.R. 206; 1990 CarswellOnt 119, refd to. [para. 44, footnote 29].

Crampton v. Walton et al., [2005] 6 W.W.R. 414; 363 A.R. 216; 343 W.A.C. 216; 194 C.C.C.(3d) 207; 29 C.C.L.T.(3d) 191; 40 Alta. L.R.(4th) 28; 2005 CarswellAlta 218; [2005] A.W.L.D. 1700; 2005 ABCA 81, refd to. [para. 45, footnote 30].

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R. v. Grdic, [1985] 1 S.C.R. 810; 59 N.R. 61; [1985] 4 W.W.R. 437; 19 D.L.R.(4th) 385; 46 C.R.(3d) 1; 19 C.C.C.(3d) 289; 1985 CarswellBC 737, refd to. [para. 46, footnote 33].

Toronto (City) et al. v. Canadian Union of Public Employees, Local 79 et al., [2003] 3 S.C.R. 77; 311 N.R. 201; 179 O.A.C. 291; 232 D.L.R.(4th) 385; 120 L.A.C.(4th) 225; 31 C.C.E.L.(3d) 216; 2003 C.L.L.C. 220-071; 2003 CarswellOnt 4328; 2003 SCC 63, refd to. [para. 47, footnote 34].

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R. v. Oakes, [1986] 1 S.C.R. 103; 65 N.R. 87; 14 O.A.C. 335; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 200; 50 C.R.(3d) 1; 24 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 19 C.R.R. 308; 53 O.R.(2d) 719; 1986 CarswellOnt 95, refd to. [para. 49, footnote 37].

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Raines v. Byrd (1997), 521 U.S. 811, refd to. [para. 97, footnote 61].

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R. v. Wilson, [1983] 2 S.C.R. 594; 51 N.R. 321; 26 Man.R.(2d) 194; 9 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 37 C.R.(3d) 97; [1984] 1 W.W.R. 481; 4 D.L.R.(4th) 577; 1983 CarswellMan 189, refd to. [para. 105, footnote 64].

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R. v. Consolidated Maybrun Mines Ltd. et al., [1998] 1 S.C.R. 706; 225 N.R. 41; 108 O.A.C. 161; 123 C.C.C.(3d) 449; 38 O.R.(3d) 576; 7 Admin. L.R.(3d) 23; 26 C.E.L.R.(N.S.) 262; 1998 CarswellOnt 1476, refd to. [para. 105, footnote 66].

United Nurses of Alberta v. Alberta (Attorney General), [1992] 1 S.C.R. 901; 135 N.R. 321; 125 A.R. 241; 14 W.A.C. 241; 1 Alta. L.R.(3d) 129; [1992] 3 W.W.R. 481; 13 C.R.(4th) 1; 71 C.C.C.(3d) 225; 89 D.L.R.(4th) 609; 92 C.L.L.C. 14, 023; 9 C.R.R.(2d) 29; [1992] Alta. L.R.B.R. 137; 1992 CarswellAlta 10, refd to. [para. 111, footnote 67].

R. v. Trang (D.) et al. (2002), 331 A.R. 216; 17 Alta. L.R.(4th) 358; 2002 CarswellAlta 1555; 2002 ABQB 1036, leave to appeal denied (2003), 320 N.R. 387; 363 A.R. 193; 343 W.A.C. 193; 2003 CarswellAlta 896 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 113, footnote 69].

Beauregard v. Canada, [1986] 2 S.C.R. 56; 70 N.R. 1; 30 D.L.R.(4th) 481; 26 C.R.R. 59; 1986 CarswellNat 1004, refd to. [para. 120, footnote 70].

R. v. Valente, [1985] 2 S.C.R. 673; 64 N.R. 1; 14 O.A.C. 79; 49 C.R.(3d) 97; 23 C.C.C.(3d) 193; 37 M.V.R. 9; 24 D.L.R.(4th) 161; 19 C.R.R. 354; 52 O.R.(2d) 779; [1986] D.L.Q. 85; 1985 CarswellOnt 948, refd to. [para. 120, footnote 71].

United States of America v. Burns and Rafay, [2001] 1 S.C.R. 283; 265 N.R. 212; 148 B.C.A.C. 1; 243 W.A.C. 1; 151 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 195 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 39 C.R.(5th) 205; 85 B.C.L.R.(3d) 1; 81 C.R.R.(2d) 1; [2001] 3 W.W.R. 193; 2001 CarswellBC 272; 2001 SCC 7, refd to. [para. 120, footnote 72].

Christie v. British Columbia (Attorney General) et al., [2006] 2 W.W.R. 610; 220 B.C.A.C. 165; 362 W.A.C. 165; 262 D.L.R.(4th) 51; 48 B.C.L.R.(4th) 267; 2005 CarswellBC 3040; [2006] B.C.W.L.D. 587; 2005 BCCA 631, leave to appeal granted (2006), 356 N.R. 393; 237 B.C.A.C. 319; 392 W.A.C. 319 (S.C.C.), dist. [para. 123, footnote 73].

British Columbia v. Imperial Tobacco Canada Ltd. et al., [2005] 2 S.C.R. 473; 339 N.R. 129; 218 B.C.A.C. 1; 359 W.A.C. 1; 257 D.L.R.(4th) 193; [2006] 1 W.W.R. 201; 45 B.C.L.R.(4th) 1; 2005 CarswellBC 2207; [2005] B.C.W.L.D. 5973; 2005 SCC 37, refd to. [para. 125, footnote 74].

Fardon v. Queensland (Attorney General), [2004] HCA 46 (Aust. H.C.), refd to. [para. 126, footnote 75].

Clinton v. Jones (1997), 520 U.S. 681 (U.S.S.C.), refd to. [para. 126, footnote 76].

Cheney (Vice President of the United States of America) v. United States District Court (District of Columbia) (2004), 124 S. Ct. 2590 (U.S.), affd. 334 F.3d 109 (U.S.C.A., D.C. Cir.), refd to. [para. 126, footnote 77].

Veith et al. v . Jubelirer (R.C.) (2004), 241 F. Supp.2d 478 (U.S.D.C.), refd to. [para. 128, footnote 78].

R. v. Fields (1986), 16 O.A.C. 286; 28 C.C.C.(3d) 353; 53 C.R.(3d) 260; 56 O.R.(2d) 213 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 129, footnote 79].

Canada (Attorney General) v. Pacific International Securities Inc. (2006), 228 B.C.A.C. 99; 376 W.A.C. 99; 2006 CarswellBC 1497; 2006 BCCA 303, refd to. [para. 130, footnote 80].

MacMillan Bloedel Ltd. v. Simpson et al., [1995] 4 S.C.R. 715; 191 N.R. 260; 68 B.C.A.C. 161; 112 W.A.C. 161; 103 C.C.C.(3d) 262; [1996] 2 W.W.R. 1; 44 C.R.(4th) 277; 130 D.L.R.(4th) 385; 14 B.C.L.R.(3d) 122; 33 C.R.R.(2d) 123; 1995 CarswellBC 974, refd to. [para. 130, footnote 81].

Entick v. Carrington, [1558-1774] All E.R. Rep. 41; 95 E.R. 807; 19 State Tr. 1029; 2 Wils. K.B. 275 (K.B.), refd to. [para. 138, footnote 84].

Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium et al. v. Canada (Minister of Justice) et al., [2000] 2 S.C.R. 1120; 263 N.R. 203; 145 B.C.A.C. 1; 237 W.A.C. 1; 150 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 38 C.R.(5th) 209; 193 D.L.R.(4th) 193; [2001] 2 W.W.R. 1; 79 C.R.R.(2d) 189; 28 Admin. L.R.(3d) 1; 83 B.C.L.R.(3d) 1; 2000 CarswellBC 2442; [2001] B.C.W.L.D. 173; J.E. 2001-49; 2000 SCC 69, refd to. [para. 138, footnote 85].

Southam Inc. v. Hunter, [1984] 2 S.C.R. 145; 55 N.R. 241; 55 A.R. 291; 9 C.R.R. 355; 14 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 41 C.R.(3d) 97; [1984] 6 W.W.R. 577; 33 Alta. L.R.(2d) 193; 27 B.L.R. 297; 84 D.T.C. 6467; 2 C.P.R.(3d) 1; 11 D.L.R.(4th) 641; 1984 CarswellAlta 121; [1984] W.C.D. 255, refd to. [para. 139, footnote 86].

R. v. Dyment, [1988] 2 S.C.R. 417; 89 N.R. 249; 73 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 13; 229 A.P.R. 13; 45 C.C.C.(3d) 244; 10 M.V.R.(2d) 1; 66 C.R.(3d) 348; 55 D.L.R.(4th) 503; 38 C.R.R. 301; 1988 CarswellPEI 7, refd to. [para. 139, footnote 87].

R. v. Silveira (A.), [1995] 2 S.C.R. 297; 181 N.R. 161; 81 O.A.C. 161; 97 C.C.C.(3d) 450; 38 C.R.(4th) 330; 28 C.R.R.(2d) 189; 124 D.L.R.(4th) 193; 23 O.R.(3d) 256; 1995 CarswellOnt 21, refd to. [para. 140, footnote 88].

Metropolitan Asylum District v. Hill (1881), 6 App. Cas. 193, refd to. [para. 143, footnote 90].

Dr. Bonham's Case, Re (1610), 8 Co. Rep. 113b; 77 E.R. 646 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 150, footnote 96].

United States of America v. Ferras (2005), 351 N.R. 1; 214 O.A.C. 326; 2006 SCC 33, affd. (2004), 184 O.A.C. 306; 237 D.L.R.(4th) 645; 2004 CarswellOnt 1032 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 150, footnote 96].

United States of America et al. v. Latty et al. (2004), 185 O.A.C. 1; 183 C.C.C.(3d) 126; 237 D.L.R.(4th) 652; 2004 CarswellOnt 981 (C.A.), leave to appeal granted (2004), 333 N.R. 197; 198 O.A.C. 199 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 150, footnote 96].

R. v. Piersanti & Co., [2000] O.A.C. Uned. 284; [2001] G.S.T.C. 3; 2000 CarswellOnt 4577 (C.A.), refd to. [para.151, footnote 98].

Lavallee, Rackel & Heintz et al. v. Canada (Attorney General), [2002] 3 S.C.R. 209; 292 N.R. 296; 312 A.R. 201; 281 W.A.C. 201; 164 O.A.C. 280; 217 Nfld. & P.E.I.R. 183; 651 A.P.R. 183; 167 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 216 D.L.R.(4th) 257; 3 C.R.(6th) 209; 4 Alta. L.R.(4th) 1; 2002 CarswellAlta 1818; J.E. 2002-1713; 2002 D.T.C. 7267; 2002 D.T.D. 7287 (Fr.); [2002] A.W.L.D. 368; 2002 SCC 61, refd to. [para. 151, footnote 98].

R. v. Church of Scientology and Zaharia (1987), 18 O.A.C. 321; 30 C.R.R. 238; 31 C.C.C.(3d) 449; 1987 CarswellOnt 1401 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 151, footnote 99].

R. v. Backhouse (J.) (2005), 195 O.A.C. 80; 194 C.C.C.(3d) 1; 28 C.R.(6th) 31; 127 C.R.R.(2d) 1; 2005 CarswellOnt 761 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 151, footnote 100].

R. v. Zevallos (1987), 22 O.A.C. 76; 37 C.C.C.(3d) 79; 32 C.R.R. 373; 59 C.R.(3d) 153; 1987 CarswellOnt 108 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 151, footnote 101].

R. v. Black (W.E.) (2001), 291 A.R. 164; 2001 CarswellAlta 369; 2001 ABQB 216, refd to. [para. 151, footnote 102].

Kelo et al. v. New London (City) et al. (2005), 268 Conn. 1; 843 A.2d 500 (S.C.), refd to. [para. 152, footnote 103].

R. v. International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental and Reinforcing Iron Workers, Local 771, [2005] 3 S.C.R. 425; 341 N.R. 357; 275 Sask.R. 1; 365 W.A.C. 1; [2006] 5 W.W.R. 114; 260 D.L.R.(4th) 385; 47 C.C.E.L.(3d) 1; 2005 C.L.L.C. 210-051; 2005 CarswellSask 768; 2005 SCC 70, refd to. [para. 156, footnote 104].

R. v. Zelensky, Eaton (T.) Co. and Canada (Attorney General) et al., [1978] 2 S.C.R. 940; 21 N.R. 372; 2 C.R.(3d) 107; 41 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 86 D.L.R.(3d) 179; [1978] 3 W.W.R. 693; 1978 CarswellMan 51, refd to. [para. 157, footnote 105].

R. v. Zeolkowski, [1989] 1 S.C.R. 1378; 95 N.R. 149; 58 Man.R.(2d) 63; [1989] 4 W.W.R. 385; 61 D.L.R.(4th) 725; 50 C.C.C.(3d) 566; 69 C.R.(3d) 281; 1989 CarswellMan 162, refd to. [para. 162, footnote 106].

R. v. Daley (I.M.), [2001] 9 W.W.R. 16; 281 A.R. 262; 248 W.A.C. 262; 94 Alta. L.R.(3d) 238; 156 C.C.C.(3d) 225; 44 C.R.(5th) 26; 85 C.R.R.(2d) 215; 2001 CarswellAlta 874; 2001 ABCA 155, refd to. [para. 164, footnote 107].

Gombosh Estate v. R., [1986] 1 S.C.R. 415; 66 N.R. 133; 15 O.A.C. 159; 25 C.C.C.(3d) 297; 51 C.R.(3d) 337; 26 D.L.R.(4th) 641; 24 C.R.R. 66; 1986 CarswellOnt 113, refd to. [para. 167, footnote 108].

R. v. Largie (1981), 63 C.C.C.(2d) 508; 25 C.R.(3d) 289; 1981 CarswellOnt 98 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 168, footnote 109].

Major v. Canadian Pacific Railway Co., [1922] 3 W.W.R. 512; 64 S.C.R. 367; 38 C.C.C. 397; 70 D.L.R. 242; 1922 CarswellOnt 120, refd to. [para. 169, footnote 110].

Holman v. Johnson (1775), 1 Cowp. 341; 98 E.R. 1120 (H.L.), refd to. [para. 169, footnote 111].

R. v. Spindloe (M.), [2002] 5 W.W.R. 239; 207 Sask.R. 3; 247 W.A.C. 3; 154 C.C.C.(3d) 8; 42 C.R.(5th) 58; 2001 CarswellSask 303; 2001 SKCA 58, refd to. [para. 170, footnote 112].

New Brunswick Provincial Court Judges' Association et al. v. New Brunswick (Minister of Justice), [2005] 2 S.C.R. 286; 336 N.R. 201; 367 A.R. 300; 346 W.A.C. 300; 288 N.B.R.(2d) 202; 751 A.P.R. 202; 201 O.A.C. 293; 255 D.L.R.(4th) 513; 14 C.P.C.(6th) 1; 30 Admin. L.R.(4th) 1; 49 Alta. L.R.(4th) 211; [2006] 1 W.W.R. 407; 135 C.R.R.(2d) 55; 135 C.R.R.(2d) 57; 2005 CarswellNB 405; J.E. 2005-1362; 2005 SCC 44, refd to. [para. 175, footnote 113].

Braun (Bankrupt), Re, [2006] A.W.L.D. 1270; 384 A.R. 80; 367 W.A.C. 80; 205 C.C.C.(3d) 22; 262 D.L.R.(4th) 611; 55 Alta. L.R.(4th) 18; 2006 CarswellAlta 67; 2006 ABCA 23, refd to. [para. 176, footnote 115].

Hansraj v. Ao et al., [2002] 8 W.W.R. 725; 314 A.R. 262; 4 Alta.L.R.(4th) 124; 2002 ABQB 385, refd to. [para. 181, footnote 116].

Société d'énergie Foster Wheeler ltée v. Sociéte intermunicipale de gestion et d'élimination des déchets (SIGED) Inc., [2004] 1 S.C.R. 456; 318 N.R. 111; 237 D.L.R.(4th) 417; 2004 CarswellQue 513; 2004 SCC 18, refd to. [para. 181, footnote 117].

R. v. Rose (J.), [1998] 3 S.C.R. 262; 232 N.R. 83; 115 O.A.C. 201; 129 C.C.C.(3d) 449; 20 C.R.(5th) 246; 166 D.L.R.(4th) 385; 57 C.R.R.(2d) 219; 40 O.R.(3d) 576; 40 W.C.B.(2d) 192; 1998 CarswellOnt 4392; 6 B.H.R.C. 206, refd to. [para. 183, footnote 118].

R. v. Evangelista (C.S.) et al. (2001), 284 A.R. 155; 2001 CarswellAlta 143; 2001 ABQB 103, refd to. [para. 191, footnote 121].

Becker v. Director of Employment Standards (Alta.) et al. (2000), 277 A.R. 131; 242 W.A.C. 131; 7 C.P.C.(5th) 41; 2000 CarswellAlta 1539; 2000 ABCA 329, leave to appeal denied (2001), 275 N.R. 396; 299 A.R. 134; 266 W.A.C. 134; 2001 CarswellAlta 1042 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 202, footnote 122].

Molineaux v. Workers' Compensation Board (Alta.) (2001), 304 A.R. 342; 45 Admin. L.R.(3d) 18; 2001 CarswellAlta 1859 (Q.B.), refd to. [para. 202, footnote 123].

A.M.H. v. Alberta, [2005] A.R. Uned. 286; 22 M.V.R.(5th) 161; 2005 CarswellAlta 1293; [2005] A.W.L.D. 3380; 2005 ABCA 286, leave to appeal denied (2006), 350 N.R. 194 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 202, footnote 124].

Castillo v. Castillo, [2005] 3 S.C.R. 870; 343 N.R. 144; 376 A.R. 224; 360 W.A.C. 224; 260 D.L.R.(4th) 439; 52 Alta. L.R.(4th) 199; 36 C.C.L.T.(3d) 167; [2006] 3 W.W.R. 595; 21 C.P.C.(6th) 50; [2006] A.W.L.D. 155; 2005 CarswellAlta 1887; 2005 SCC 83, refd to. [para. 203, footnote 125].

Canada (Attorney General) v. P.P.G. Industries Canada Ltd. and Pilkington Brothers (Canada) Ltd., [1976] 2 S.C.R. 739; 7 N.R. 209; 65 D.L.R.(3d) 354; 1975 CarswellNat 384, refd to. [para. 206, footnote 126].

P.P.G. Industries Canada Inc. v. Canada (Attorney General) - see Canada (Attorney General) v. P.P.G. Industries Canada Ltd. and Pilkington Brothers (Canada) Ltd.

R. v. Amendt, [1915] 2 K.B. 276, refd to. [para. 206, footnote 126].

R. v. Buhay (M.A.), [2003] 1 S.C.R. 631; 305 N.R. 158; 177 Man.R.(2d) 72; 304 W.A.C. 72; 174 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 10 C.R.(6th) 397; 225 D.L.R.(4th) 624; [2004] 4 W.W.R. 1; 2003 CarswellMan 230; 2003 SCC 30, refd to. [para. 212, footnote 128].

R. v. Kokesch, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 3; 121 N.R. 161; 61 C.C.C.(3d) 207; 1 C.R.(4th) 62; [1991] 1 W.W.R. 193; 51 B.C.L.R.(2d) 157; 50 C.R.R. 285; 1990 CarswellBC 255, refd to. [para. 212, footnote 129].

Keefe et al. v. Edmonton (City) et al., [2005] 11 W.W.R. 199; 363 A.R. 384; 343 W.A.C. 384; 11 M.P.L.R.(4th) 24; 29 Admin. L.R.(4th) 245; 47 Alta. L.R.(4th) 209; 2005 CarswellAlta 442; [2005] A.W.L.D. 1972; [2005] A.W.L.D. 1878; 2005 ABCA 144, refd to. [para. 233, footnote 130].

Beals v. Saldanha et al., [ 2003] 3 S.C.R. 416; 314 N.R. 209; 182 O.A.C. 201; 234 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 39 B.L.R.(3d) 1; 39 C.P.C.(5th) 1; 2003 CarswellOnt 5101; 2003 SCC 72, refd to. [para. 233, footnote 131].

Baker v. Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration), [1999] 2 S.C.R. 817; 243 N.R. 22; 1 Imm. L.R.(3d) 1; 174 D.L.R.(4th) 193; 14 Admin. L.R.(3d) 173; 1999 CarswellNat 1124, refd to. [para. 235, footnote 132].

Danyluk v. Ainsworth Technologies Inc. et al., [2001] 2 S.C.R. 460; 272 N.R. 1; 149 O.A.C. 1; 201 D.L.R.(4th) 193; 54 O.R.(3d) 214; 10 C.C.E.L.(3d) 1; 7 C.P.C.(5th) 199; [2001] C.L.L.C. 210-033; 34 Admin. L.R.(3d) 163; 2001 CarswellOnt 2434; 2001 SCC 44, dist. [para. 240, footnote 133].

Turigan et al. v. Alberta, [1989] 6 W.W.R. 673; 90 A.R. 118; 45 C.C.C.(3d) 136; 53 D.L.R.(4th) 321; 62 Alta. L.R.(2d) 1 (C.A.), leave to appeal refused [1989] 1 S.C.R. xvi; 101 N.R. 159; 97 A.R. 160; 48 C.C.C.(3d) vi; 57 D.L.R.(4th) viii, refd to. [para. 242, footnote 134].

R. v. Regan (G.A.), [2002] 1 S.C.R. 297; 282 N.R. 1; 201 N.S.R.(2d) 63; 629 A.P.R. 63; 161 C.C.C.(3d) 97; 49 C.R.(5th) 1; 209 D.L.R.(4th) 41; 91 C.R.R.(2d) 51; 2002 CarswellNS 61; 2002 SCC 12, refd to. [para. 245, footnote 135].

R. v. Ghorvei (M.) (1999), 124 O.A.C. 301; 138 C.C.C.(3d) 340; 29 C.R.(5th) 102; 46 O.R.(3d) 63; 1999 CarswellOnt 2763 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 252, footnote 137].

R. v. Karaibrahimovic (J.J.) (2002), 303 A.R. 181; 273 W.A.C. 181; 164 C.C.C. (3d) 431; 3 C.R.(6th) 153; [2002] 7 W.W.R. 452; 2 Alta. L.R.(4th) 213; 2002 CarswellAlta 550; 2002 ABCA 102, refd to. [para. 252, footnote 138].

R. v. Abbey, [1982] 2 S.C.R. 24; 43 N.R. 30; 29 C.R.(3d) 193; [1983] 1 W.W.R. 251; 39 B.C.L.R. 201; 68 C.C.C.(2d) 394; 138 D.L.R.(3d) 202; 1982 CarswellBC 740, refd to. [para. 254, footnote 139].

R. v. Marquard (D.), [1993] 4 S.C.R. 223; 159 N.R. 81; 66 O.A.C. 161; 108 D.L.R.(4th) 47; 85 C.C.C.(3d) 193; 25 C.R.(4th) 1; 108 D.L.R.(4th) 47; 1993 CarswellOnt 995, refd to. [para. 254, footnote 140].

R. v. Burlingham (T.W.), [1995] 2 S.C.R. 206; 181 N.R. 1; 58 B.C.A.C. 161; 96 W.A.C. 161; 97 C.C.C.(3d) 385; 124 D.L.R.(4th) 7; 38 C.R.(4th) 265; 28 C.R.R.(2d) 244; 1995 CarswellBC 71, refd to. [para. 263, footnote 141].

R. v. Waterfield, [1964] 1 Q.B. 164; [1963] 3 W.L.R. 946; 48 Cr. App. Rep. 42; [1963] 3 All E.R. 659, refd to. [para. 270, footnote 142].

R. v. Mann (P.H.), [2004] 3 S.C.R. 59; 324 N.R. 215; 187 Man.R.(2d) 1; 330 W.A.C. 1; 185 C.C.C.(3d) 308; 21 C.R.(6th) 1; 241 D.L.R.(4th) 214; [2004] 11 W.W.R. 601; 2004 CarswellMan 303; 2004 SCC 52, refd to. [para. 270, footnote 143].

Maranda v. Leblanc, [2003] 3 S.C.R. 193; 311 N.R. 357; 178 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 232 D.L.R.(4th) 14; 15 C.R.(6th) 1; 113 C.R.R.(2d) 76; 2003 CarswellQue 2477; 2003 SCC 67, refd to. [para. 272, footnote 145].

Maranda v. Québec (Justice of the Peace) and Canada (Attorney General) - see Maranda v. Leblanc.

R. v. McClure (D.E.), [2001] 1 S.C.R. 445; 266 N.R. 275; 142 O.A.C. 201; 195 D.L.R.(4th) 513; 151 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 40 C.R.(5th) 19; 80 C.R.R.(2d) 217; 2001 CarswellOnt 496; 2001 SCC 14, refd to. [para. 272, footnote 146].

Ontario (Minister of Correctional Services) v. Goodis et al. (2006), 350 N.R. 154; 214 O.A.C. 377; 2006 SCC 31, refd to. [para. 272, footnote 147].

Celanese Canada Inc. v. Murray Demolition Corp. et al. (2006), 352 N.R. 1; 215 O.A.C. 266; 2006 SCC 36, refd to. [para. 275, footnote 148].

Alberta v. Nilsson, [2003] 2 W.W.R. 215; 320 A.R. 88; 288 W.A.C. 88; 8 Alta. L.R.(4th) 83; 220 D.L.R.(4th) 474; 2002 CarswellAlta 1491; 2002 ABCA 283, refd to. [para. 279, footnote 149].

Odhavji Estate et al. v. Woodhouse et al., [2003] 3 S.C.R. 263; 312 N.R. 305; 180 O.A.C. 201; 19 C.C.L.T.(3d) 163; 233 D.L.R.(4th) 193; 11 Admin. L.R.(4th) 45; 70 O.R.(3d) 253; 2003 CarswellOnt 4851; 2003 SCC 69, refd to. [para. 279, footnote 150].

Whiten v. Pilot Insurance Co. et al., [2002] 1 S.C.R. 595; 283 N.R. 1; 156 O.A.C. 201; 209 D.L.R.(4th) 257; 2002 SCC 18, refd to. [para. 312, footnote 151].

Wallace v. United Grain Growers Ltd., [1997] 3 S.C.R. 701; 219 N.R. 161; 123 Man.R.(2d) 1; 159 W.A.C. 1; 152 D.L.R.(4th) 1; 36 C.C.E.L.(2d) 1; 3 C.B.R.(4th) 1; [1997] L.V.I. 2889-1; [1999] 4 W.W.R. 86; 97 C.L.L.C. 210-029; 1997 CarswellMan 455, refd to. [para. 312, footnote 152].

R. v. Branton (D.) et al. (2001), 144 O.A.C. 187; 154 C.C.C.(3d) 139; 199 D.L.R.(4th) 321; 44 C.R.(5th) 275; 53 O.R.(3d) 737; 2001 CarswellOnt 1288 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 313, footnote 153].

R. v. Dobson (P.M.) et al. (2000), 128 O.A.C. 290; 142 C.C.C.(3d) 134; 30 C.R.(5th) 282; 70 C.R.R.(2d) 65; 2000 CarswellOnt 49 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 316, footnote 154].

Shah v. Alberta (1998), 225 A.R. 79; 1998 ABQB 444, refd to. [para. 316, footnote 155].

Gladstone v. Canada (Attorney General), [2005] 2 S.C.R. 325; 332 N.R. 182; 251 D.L.R. (4th) 1; [2005] 6 W.W.R. 401; 38 B.C.L.R. (4th) 234; 2005 CarswellBC 911; [2005] B.C.W.L.D. 2693; 2005 SCC 21, reving. [2004] 3 W.W.R. 424; 189 B.C.A.C. 129; 309 W.A.C. 129; 233 D.L.R.(4th) 629; 21 B.C.L.R.(4th) 247; 2003 CarswellBC 2806; 2003 BCCA 614, refd to. [para. 317, footnote 156].

Vukelich v. Mission Institution (Warden) (2005), 209 B.C.A.C. 39; 345 W.A.C. 39; 38 B.C.L.R.(4th) 132; 9 C.P.C.(6th) 137; 26 Admin. L.R.(4th) 82; 252 D.L.R.(4th) 634; 19 C.P.C.(6th) 171; 2005 CarswellBC 328; [2005] B.C.W.L.D. 2439; 2005 BCCA 75, refd to. [para. 323, footnote 158].

R. v. Bhatti (S.S.) (2006), 220 B.C.A.C. 306; 362 W.A.C. 306; 204 C.C.C.(3d) 463; 2006 CarswellBC 18; 2006 BCCA 16, refd to. [para. 324, footnote 159].

R. v. Leduc (J.) (2003), 174 O.A.C. 242; 176 C.C.C.(3d) 321; 66 O.R.(3d) 1; 2003 CarswellOnt 2926 (C.A.), leave to appeal denied 2003 CarswellOnt 4761 (S.C.C.), reving. [2001] O.T.C. 673; 84 C.R.R.(2d) 200 (Sup. Ct.), refd to. [para. 324, footnote 160].

R. v. Krueger (D.W.), [2006] A.W.L.D. 1686; 380 A.R. 182; 363 W.A.C. 182; 206 C.C.C.(3d) 390; 2006 CarswellAlta 221; 2006 ABCA 63, affing. (2004), 373 A.R. 371; 2004 CarswellAlta 1776; 2004 ABQB 792, refd to. [para. 324, footnote 161].

R. v. Henkel (J.E.) et al., [2003] 5 W.W.R. 63; 320 A.R. 206; 288 W.A.C. 206; 172 C.C.C.(3d) 387; 2003 CarswellAlta 62; 2003 ABCA 23, refd to. [para. 324, footnote 162].

R. v. Robinson (C.J.), [2000] 3 W.W.R. 125; 250 A.R. 201; 213 W.A.C. 201; 142 C.C.C.(3d) 303; 75 Alta. L.R.(3d) 117; 31 C.R.(5th) 134; 71 C.R.R.(2d) 199; 1999 CarswellAlta 1192 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 324, footnote 163].

R. v. Taylor (S.C.) (2006), 228 B.C.A.C. 79; 376 W.A.C. 79; 2006 BCCA 297, affd. [2005] B.C.T.C. 1257; 2005 BCSC 1257, refd to. [para. 325, footnote 164].

R. v. Taylor (S.C.), [2006] B.C.T.C. 720; 2006 BCSC 720, refd to. [para. 325, footnote 164].

R. v. D.B. (2006), 208 O.A.C. 225; 206 C.C.C.(3d) 289 (C.A.), leave to appeal granted (2006), 359 N.R. 395 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 325, footnote 165].

R. v. Glenshiel Towing Co. (2001), 154 B.C.A.C. 310; 252 W.A.C. 310; 157 C.C.C.(3d) 335; 90 B.C.L.R.(3d) 289; 2001 BCCA 0417, leave to appeal denied (2002), 286 N.R. 397; 171 B.C.A.C. 172; 280 W.A.C. 172 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 325, footnote 166].

R. v. Port MacNeill (Town) (1998), 104 B.C.A.C. 241; 170 W.A.C. 241; 123 C.C.C.(3d) 392; 158 D.L.R.(4th) 471; 1998 CarswellBC 495 (C.A.), leave to appeal dismissed (1998), 231 N.R. 398; 120 B.C.A.C. 319; 196 W.A.C. 319 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 325, footnote 167].

R. v. Garcia (M.) (2005), 195 O.A.C. 64; 194 C.C.C.(3d) 361; 29 C.R.(6th) 126; 12 M.V.R.(5th) 169; 2005 CarswellOnt 727 (C.A.), refd to. [para. 325, footnote 168].

Winters v. Legal Services Society (B.C.), [1999] 3 S.C.R. 160; 244 N.R. 203; 128 B.C.A.C. 161; 208 W.A.C. 161; [1999] 9 W.W.R. 327; 137 C.C.C.(3d) 371; 27 C.R.(5th) 1; 177 D.L.R.(4th) 94; 66 C.R.R.(2d) 241; 73 B.C.L.R.(3d) 193; 1999 CarswellBC 1969, refd to. [para. 330, footnote 170].

Deans et al. v. Thachuk et al., [2006] 4 W.W.R. 698; 376 A.R. 326; 360 W.A.C. 326; 48 C.C.P.B. 65; 20 E.T.R.(3d) 19; [2005] C.E.B. & P.G.R. 8177; 52 Alta. L.R.(4th) 41; 2005 CarswellAlta 1518; 2005 ABCA 368, leave to appeal denied (2006), 354 N.R. 200 (S.C.C.), refd to. [para. 330, footnote 171].

Gutierrez v. Jeske (2006), 411 A.R. 10; 2005 CarswellAlta 1970; [2006] A.W.L.D. 897; 2005 ABQB 219, refd to. [para. 330, footnote 172].

Dechant v. Law Society of Alberta, [2001] 5 W.W.R. 448; 277 A.R. 333; 242 W.A.C. 333; 89 Alta. L.R.(3d) 289; 2001 CarswellAlta 356; 2001 ABCA 81, refd to. [para. 331, footnote 173].

Authors and Works Noticed:

Anger and Honsberger, The Law of Real Property (3rd Ed. 2006) (Looseleaf), p. 31-12, § 31.70.10 [para. 152, footnote 103].

Creasy, Edward, The Rise and Progress of the English Constitution (16th Ed. 1892), pp. 313 to 337 [para. 133, footnote 82].

Dicey, A.V., Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (8th Ed. 1926), pp. 189 to 191 [para. 142, footnote 89].

Fridman, Gerald Henry Louis, The Law of Torts in Canada (2nd Ed. 2002), pp. 161, 162 [para. 83, footnote 52]; 163 [paras. 83, 86, footnotes 52, 56].

Halsbury's Laws of England (1909), vol. 6, p. 319 [para. 144, footnote 91].

Halsbury's Laws of England (2nd Ed.) (1932), vol. 6, pp. 381 to 384 [para. 136, footnote 83]; 391, § 436 [para. 142, footnote 89].

Halsbury's Laws of England (1990) (4th Ed. - Reissue), vol. 44(1), para. 1335 [para. 191, footnote 120].

Halsbury's Laws of England (1996) (4th Ed. - Reissue), vol. 8(2), pp. 14, § 6 [para. 146, footnote 93]; 16, § 6, fn. 10 [para. 147, footnote 94]; 16, § 6, fn. 11 [para. 148, footnote 95].

Poe, Edgar Allan, The Cask of Amontillado (1846), generally [para. 70, footnote 50].

Salhany, Roger E., Canadian Criminal Procedure (5th Ed. 1989), pp. 85, 86 [para. 151, footnote 97].

Salhany, Roger E., Canadian Criminal Procedure (6th Ed. 1994) (1996 Looseleaf), p. 3-57 [para. 151, footnote 97].

Wells, H.W., A Treatise on the Law of Replevin (2nd Ed. 1907), generally [para. 86, footnote 56].

Counsel:

James N. Shaw (Justice Canada), for the respondent;

Peter J. Royal, Q.C., and Deborah R. Hatch (Royal, McCrum, Duckett & Glancy), for the applicant.

This application was heard on June 23, 2006, before Watson, J., of the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench, Judicial District of Edmonton, who delivered the following judgment on July 28, 2006.

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