AuthorGregory Tardi
See Francis Fukuyama, e End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free
Press, ).
e Economist Intelligence Unit, Democracy Index : In Sickness and in
Health ? (London, UK: February ), online:
EP ompson, Whigs and Hunters: e Origins of the Black Act (New York: Knopf
Doubleday, ).
  | The Need for Better Understanding of
Government and Governing
Constitution Act,  (UK),  &  Vict, c , reprinted in RSC , App II,
No  [Constitution Act, ], online:
Reference re Alberta Statutes, [] SCR .
 Notably Boucher v e King, [] SCR ,  CanLII  (SCC); Saumur v
City of Quebec, []  SCR ,  CanLII  (SCC), and Switzman v Elbling,
[] SCR ,  CanLII  (SCC).
Bill C-, An Act to amend the Constitution of Canada, d Sess, th Parl, ,
Constitution Act, , above note .
Reference re Secession of Quebec, []  SCR  [Quebec Secession Reference] at
para .
Ref re Remuneration of Judges of the Prov Court of PEI, []  SCR .
Ontario v OPSEU, []  SCR ,  CanLII  (SCC), Referen ce re Prov-
incial Electoral Boundaries (Sask), []  SCR ; R v Oakes, []  SCR
,  CanLII  (SCC), Harvey v New Brunswick (Attorney General), []
 SCR ,  CanLII  (SCC).
Beyond the work of the courts and the scholars, there have been many
popular attempts to def‌ine the notion of Democracy. One example is the
 CBC television series hosted by Patrick Watson entitled e Struggle for
Democracy. is was accompanied by a book bearing the same title (Toronto:
Lester & Orpen Dennys and CBC Enterprises, ). A more recent example
is the documentary entitled What Is Democracy? produced by Astra Taylor
that aired on TVO on  August . Such programs amply illustrate the
diculty of def‌ining the concept and staying on focus.
  SCC .
  ONCA  at para .
 Quebec Secession Reference, above note  at para  [emphasis added].
 Tom Bingham, e Rule of Law (London: Penguin Books, ) at .
 Roncarelli v Duplessis, [] SCR  at .
 Re Manitoba Language Rights, []  SCR  at paras  & .
 Code of Civil Procedure (Québec), CQLR, c C-..
 Reference re Code of Civil Procedure (Que), art ,  SCC  at headnote.
 Quebec Secession Reference, above note  at para .
 Unwritten Constitutional Principles: What Is Going On?, Remarks of the Right
Honourable Beverley McLachlin, PC, CJ ( December ), online:---eng.aspx?pedisable=true.
 Refah Partisi (e Welfare Party) and others v Turkey [GC], Nos /, /,
/, and /, ECHR .
 Mathieu-Mohin and Clerfayt v Belgium, No /, ECHR .
 Selahattin Demirtaş v Turkey (No ) [GC], No /, ECHR .
 e best example of this dilemma today is the People’s Republic of China. In
a succession of fundamental documents that should be understood to be pri-
marily geared for foreign consumption, that country calls itself D/democratic.
From the Canadian perspective, these very documents, extolling one-party
rule and the development of “whole-process people’s democracy,” show how
it is not. See Document No  (also referred to as the Communiqué on the Current
State of the Ideological Sphere, online: www.chinaf‌-chinaf‌ile-
translation), an instrument of the Communist Party of China dating
from , and a document entitled China: Democracy at Works, issued on

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